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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

transition from westerly to easterly winds with important consequences for the propagation and drag of planetary and synoptic waves ( Scaife et al. 2002 ). They also contribute to the forcing of the Brewer–Dobson circulation and thus to the transport of trace gases like ozone and water vapor ( Alexander and Rosenlof 1996 ). Convectively generated GWs are important for generating the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropics ( Labitzke 2005 ; Marshall and Scaife 2009 ), which has a strong influence

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Markus Rapp, Bernd Kaifler, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Tyler Mixa, Robert Reichert, Natalie Kaifler, Stefanie Knobloch, Ramona Eckert, Norman Wildmann, Andreas Giez, Lukas Krasauskas, Peter Preusse, Markus Geldenhuys, Martin Riese, Wolfgang Woiwode, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Alejandro de la Torre, Peter Alexander, Jose Luis Hormaechea, Diego Janches, Markus Garhammer, Jorge L. Chau, J. Federico Conte, Peter Hoor, and Andreas Engel

, we show their respective anomalies VHOR*, Z *, and T * for August and September 2019 related to the 41-yr ERA5 climatological mean at 100 hPa in Fig. 5 . The warming and horizontal shift of the cold center of the polar vortex toward South America is clearly visible in the T * plots. The T * amplitude increased from August to September to values up to 25 K. Associated with this T anomaly is the Z anomaly that switched from a weak planetary wave-2 (PW2) pattern in August to a strong PW1

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Mahnoosh Haghighatnasab, Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

.1175/2008JAS2538.1 . 10.1175/2008JAS2538.1 McIntyre , M. E. , and W. A. Norton , 2000 : Potential vorticity inversion on a hemisphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 57 , 1214 – 1235 ,<1214:PVIOAH>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<1214:PVIOAH>2.0.CO;2 McLandress , C. , 2002 : The seasonal variation of the propagating diurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Part I: The role of gravity waves and planetary waves . J. Atmos. Sci. , 59 , 893 – 906

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Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

1. Introduction More than 20 yr since the pioneering work by O’Sullivan and Dunkerton (1995) , the problem of inertia–gravity wave (IGW) generation by vortical flows has remained an active area of research [see Plougonven and Zhang (2014) for a recent review]. It is related to the fundamental problems of balance ( Vanneste 2013 ; Bühler et al. 2014 ; Callies et al. 2014 ; McIntyre 2015 ) and wave–vortex decomposition (WVD; Bühler et al. 2014 ; Callies et al. 2014 ), as well as the more

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