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Mark R. Jury

the detrended Agulhas SST index in the satellite era: warm—1983, 1992, 1993, 1999, 2000, and 2007—and cold—1981, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1995, and 1996. The successive-year pattern is related to natural persistence in the marine climate and to calendar years dividing the southern summer and ENSO influence. Warm minus cold composite fields are calculated for upper-ocean currents and salinity, surface winds, and latent heat fluxes and the meridional atmospheric circulation and humidity. The detrended

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A. Birol Kara, Charlie N. Barron, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Temel Oguz

1. Introduction Analysis of interannual sea surface height (SSH) variability and identification of the impact of regional and global factors is of great interest for understanding climatic changes in the Black Sea, involving its basin dynamics and ecosystem. SSH can be used for interpreting subsurface temperature and salinity variability, which is generally difficult to obtain at fine spatial and temporal scales for an ocean basin (e.g., Mayer et al. 2001 ). SSH variability includes steric and

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Elizabeth I. Okoyeh, Anthony E. Akpan, B. C. E. Egboka, and H. I. Okeke

some undesirable effects, like increasing soil and groundwater salinity levels and contaminating the soil and water resources ( Gaus and Vande Casteele 2004 ; Koukadaki et al. 2007 ; Gemitzi et al. 2009 ; Mohamed et al. 2009 ; Sikandar et al. 2010 ; Kirkegaard et al. 2011 ; Zarroca et al. 2011 ; Russo and Taddia 2012 ). Other erosion-induced environmental problems in the state include the rising trend in the sedimentation of rivers, streams, lakes, and other surface water reservoirs ( De

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Mark R. Jury

). The Red Sea oceanography is studied using daily HYCOM reanalysis surface salinity and temperature at 9-km resolution ( Chassignet et al. 2009 ); transpiration is characterized by NOAA satellite vegetation fraction at 1-km resolution ( Tucker et al. 2005 ). AEW over northeast Africa were identified using CMORPH rainfall and MERRA 600-hPa relative vorticity in the 10°–15°N latitude zone in three adjacent 10° longitude boxes west of Ethiopia. An AEW index was formed by adding the vorticity (×10 6 s

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Mark R. Jury and Sen Chiao

between Jamaica and Cuba, so monthly-mean convective available potential energy (CAPE) values exceed 3000 J kg −1 (not shown). The SODA reanalysis mean map and section for central Antilles salinity and upper ocean currents is shown in Figures 2a,b . Although Atlantic waters penetrate the Caribbean passages, enhanced rainfall leeward of Hispaniola induces a low-salinity plume. Ocean currents exhibit a confluence line that extends southwest of Hispaniola, passing Jamaica and inducing anticyclonic

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S. M. Saifullah, Sarwat Ismail, S. H. Khan, and M. Saleem

and 35°C in May. Salinity values generally fluctuated between 35 and 40 psu ( Saifullah et al. 2002 ), but may be as high as 47 psu. These high values are attributed to a decrease in Indus River discharge as a result of upstream diversion of its water for agricultural and industrial purposes ( Saifullah 1997 ). Concentration of Fe in seawater ranged between 0.01 and 0.24 ppm with an average value of 0.08 ppm ( Table 1 ). Tariq et al. ( Tariq et al. 1993 ) reported very low values of Fe from the

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, Mathew Maltrud, Jose Hernandez, and David Erickson

resolved locally to portray major vertical mixing structures. Surface forcing is provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) daily wind stress, Barnier et al.'s ( Barnier et al., 1995 ) climatological heat fluxes, and relaxation of surface salinity to the Levitus ( Levitus, 1982 ) climatology. More details concerning the physical model setup and results can be found in Maltrud et al. ( Maltrud et al., 1998 ) and in Garfield et al. ( Garfield et al., 2001 ). Since mixed

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Charles P-A. Bourque and Quazi K. Hassan

methods (e.g., pumps, building of diversion channels, irrigation) can be employed to extend the boundaries of the oasis but at a tremendous cost, both financially and ecologically, by promoting, for example, soil salinization ( Youhao et al. 2007 ) and other environmental problems. With vegetation present in the oasis, there is a natural tendency for the oasis to self-regulate and resist the encroachment of the surrounding desert by staying moist. Changes that promote the replacement of high water

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K. Y. Li, R. De Jong, M. T. Coe, and N. Ramankutty

. Estimating unsaturated soil hydraulic properties from tension disc infiltrometer data by numerical inversion. Water Resour. Res. 32 : 2683 – 2696 . Simunek , J. , M. Sejna , and M. Th Van Genuchten . 1998 . The HYDRUS-1D software package for simulating the one-dimensional movement of water, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated media. Version 2.0, U. S. Salinity Laboratory, ARS-USDA, Riverside, CA . Steudle , E. 1994 . Water transport across roots. Plant Soil 167 : 79 – 90

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Tianyi Zhang, Xiaomao Lin, Danny H. Rogers, and Freddie R. Lamm

% surface irrigation system and complete adoption of greater-efficiency irrigation systems is probably unrealistic because surface irrigation predominates in some regions for certain crops and for salinity control. Additionally, more advanced irrigation infrastructure often requires a larger investment that cannot be offset by the crop revenue ( Seo et al. 2008 ; Schuck et al. 2005 ). Therefore, we prefer to view this result for the western United States not as predictions of actual adaptation but

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