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Carlowen A. Smith, Kevin G. Speer, and Ross W. Griffiths

= d E / d ~ 10 −2 . The effective viscosity that would be required to achieve this depth would be ν eff = fd 2 · E ~10 −2 m 2 s −1 . Despite this, the large lateral length scale of the ocean puts the Ta ≳ 10 28 at much higher values than any of the laboratory experiments. In classical annulus experiments, the Taylor number was identified as being most important to the transition between axisymmetric and regular wave flows ( Fig. 1 ). After this transition, it was shown to be relatively

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Katherine McCaffrey, Baylor Fox-Kemper, and Gael Forget

not fully describe the composite nature of observed variability seen in real ocean data. Macroturbulence as defined above includes mesoscale eddy activity, internal waves, and other signals such as responses to atmospheric forcing. A complementary approach is to distinguish among observed macroturbulence according to its spatial scale. To this end, structure functions provide an adequate tool that is here applied to in situ profiles of salinity collected by the global array of Argo floats. a

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Roy Barkan, Kraig B. Winters, and Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith

wave interactions in the interior, instability of geostrophic motions, and direct interactions with side and bottom boundaries ( Müller et al. 2005 ; Ferrari and Wunsch 2010 ). About 90% of the E k in the oceans is stored in the geostrophic eddy field ( Ferrari and Wunsch 2009 ) and, given this large fraction, we focus here on the “instability” pathway to dissipation. Geostrophic eddies are formed, primarily, via baroclinic instability of large-scale ocean currents that are in approximate

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Navid C. Constantinou

.1137/S1064827502410633 Lorenz , E. N. , 1972 : Barotropic instability of Rossby wave motion . J. Atmos. Sci. , 29 , 258 – 269 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<0258:BIORWM>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<0258:BIORWM>2.0.CO;2 Mak , J. , D. P. Marshall , J. R. Maddison , and S. D. Bachman , 2017 : Emergent eddy saturation from an energy constrained parameterisation . Ocean Modell. , 112 , 125 – 138 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2017.02.007 . 10.1016/j

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Michael A. Spall

1. Introduction The Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the global climate system through its absorption/reflection of solar radiation (which is strongly dependent on the presence of sea ice), as a conduit for freshwater input from rivers, and through water mass modification by exporting both fresh buoyant surface waters and dense salty deep waters. The Arctic Ocean is a semienclosed marginal sea that is connected to the lower-latitude oceans through several shallow and/or narrow passages

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Vamsi K. Chalamalla and Sutanu Sarkar

closer to oceanic conditions. Both cases have the same value of background stratification N ∞ and wave shear U b / l b . Physical and computational parameters for the simulations are given in Table 1 . The choice of background stratification N ∞ ~ O (10 −3 ) rad s −1 is consistent with measurements at deep (order of 1 km) flanks of rough topography, for example, Kaena Ridge ( Aucan et al. 2006 ) and the west ridge of the double-ridged Luzon Strait ( Buijsman et al. 2012 ). Table 1

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