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ROBERT A. BAUM

aircraft,satellites, ship reports, and inflight reports from com-mercial aircraft.Surface synoptic and upper air data continue to besparse. Upper air data are nonexistent, except for oc-casional wind reports from Mazatlan, and surface datahave become even more sparse in the past year. U.S. AirForce and U.S. Navy reconnaissance aircraft flew when-ever storms were within range, the Air Force penetratingthe centers at 300 mb and the Navy at about 1,500 ft.The Air Force flew a total of 18 missions

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ARNOLD L. SUGG
and
PAUL J. HEBERT

surprising.The pattern remained unfavorable into September.Posey (1968) states there were below-normal heights at700 mb from the western Atlantic to the Black Sea.Again, this is not what the forecaster looks for as a favor-able pattern for the development of the long-trajectory,Atlantic-Cape Verde-type cyclones so typical of Augustand September. In figure 1, note that Edna never attainedhurricane force and failed to hold together long enoughto make the usual recurvature or landfall.Two conclusions might

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Robert A. Case
and
Harold P. Gerrish

gradient and northeasterly winds to near galeforce along portions of the eastern seaboard. On 26 September, a low-level circulation developedwithin the frontal band approximately 750 km east ofcentral Florida. On 27 September, an Air Force reconnaissance airplane found winds of 18m s-I and acentral pressure of 99.9 kPa, which indicated the systemwas intensifying. In addition, satellite pictures showedthat the storm's cloud structure was separating fromthe remainder of the frontal cloud band. This

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Paul J. Hebert
and
Neil L. Frank

period 15 August-15 September 1973.The interaction of merging convective cloud systemsof an easterly wave and a weak middle-tropospherictrough moving eastward from Florida produced a weakcirculation northeast of the central Bahamas late on28 June, but the first evidence of a well-defined circulation came on the 30th when ship reports located a lownear 26N, 69W. The development process during the initial stagesappeared to be drawing more on baroclinic energy thanon the latent heat releases of the

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Richard J. Pasch
and
Lixion A. Avila

within a few hundred kilometers of the U.S. coastline) weather radar observations. The vast majority of satellite information during the 1996 season came from the geostationary satellite GOES-8. Position and intensity estimates using satellite data are obtained by using the Dvorak (1984) technique. Most of the aerial reconnaissance was accomplished by the “Hurricane Hunters” of the U.S. Air Force Reserve Unit. Reconnaissance aircraft are routinely deployed into Atlantic tropical cyclones that

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R. H. SIMPSON
and
JOSEPH M. PELISSIER

named storms in theAtlantic but a bumper crop in the eastern Pacific. Hom-ever, the opportunit,y for tropical storm development interms of the number of seedling disturbances that crossedthe tropical Atlantic differed little over t,he past 3 yr. In1969, it will be recalled, t.here was an abundance of hurri-canes in the Atlantic but fewer than normal in the easternPacific.Of the seven named Atlantic storms of 1970, only threereached hurricane intensity; and only Celia broughthurricane-force winds to

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GORDON E. DUNN
and
STAFF

likely relnt,ed to n cloud vortex viewed byTIROS near 14' N., 24" W. on July 25, and a weaksurfnce circulntion observed simultaneously in the CapeVerdes. A reconnnissnnce plane dispatched to the areaalthough maximum surface ensterly winds of 50 m.p.11.were observed nenr 21" N., 50" W. The lowest sea levelpressure was 101 1 mb.The next morning reconnnissnnce found thnt the pres-sure had dropped to 1006 mb. with a small wind andpressure eye nenr 22.15" N., 56.40' W.; maximum sllrfwewinds of 50 m

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Richard J. Pasch
and
Lixion A. Avila

area of disturbed weathernear Bermuda around 12 August. The disturbancemoved toward the southwest and west with no significant change in organization for a few days until a weaksurface low formed several hundred kilometers to theeast of the Bahamas on 15 August. Animation of highresolution visible satellite imagery during that periodrevealed only a broad, poorly defined cyclonic circulation of low clouds near a band of convection withlittle curvature. An air force flight into the system reported

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Lixion A. Avila
,
Richard J. Pasch
,
Jack L. Beven
,
James L. Franklin
,
Miles B. Lawrence
,
Stacy R. Stewart
, and
Jiann-Gwo Jiing

Mexico every year. However, only one tropical cyclone, Juliette, hit the coast of Mexico in 2001. This hurricane reached category 4 intensity, but weakened to category 1 by the time it was near southern Baja California, Mexico. Juliette brought hurricane force winds to the Cabo San Lucas area, but weakened to a tropical storm by the time its center crossed the coast of the Baja California peninsula. It was responsible for two deaths. Adolph, Dalila, Ivo, and Lorena came close enough to the coast to

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Miles B. Lawrence
,
Lixion A. Avila
,
Jack L. Beven
,
James L. Franklin
,
John L. Guiney
, and
Richard J. Pasch

–23 September Gert was a 130-kt hurricane that moved across the central North Atlantic Ocean. It briefly produced hurricane force winds at Bermuda and high waves along the southeast coast of Newfoundland. 1) Synoptic history A tropical wave moved from west Africa to the Atlantic on 10 September, accompanied by convective banding and some evidence of a low-level cloud circulation. The developing tropical cyclone's track was south of the Atlantic subtropical ridge and toward the west-northwest from 10

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