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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

(1975) intensity estimation techniques. These estimates (“classifications”) are provided by the Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/National Weather Service’s (NOAA/NWS) Tropical Prediction Center (TPC), the NOAA/Satellite Analysis Branch in Washington, D.C., and the Air Force Weather Agency in Omaha, Nebraska. For systems threatening land, in situ observations are generally available from aircraft reconnaissance flights

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John A. Augustine and Kenneth W. Howard

ground station at theEnvironmental Research Laboratories (ERL) inBoulder, Colorado, has remedied this situation. Automatic measurement techniques have been devisedand accompanying software developed to compute,accurately and objectively, cloud-top areas, centroids,and eccentricity from digital satellite imagery. Dataavailability and access, along with a detailed descriptionof the measurement techniques, are given in Augustine(1985); however, these topics are briefly reviewed here.TABLE 2. Modified

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Mark A. Lander and Michael D. Angove

1. Introduction This summary of the tropical cyclones (TC) of the Eastern Hemisphere during 1995 was compiled from the archives of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Guam (hereafter, JTWC). The JTWC was activated on 1 May 1959 as the Fleet Weather Central/Joint Typhoon Warning Center. It is a joint navy–air force activity. Located atop Nimitz Hill, Guam, the JTWC has a forecast area of responsibility (AOR) that extends from the 180° meridian westward to the coast of Africa, in

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R. A. Maddox, D. M. Rodgers, and K. W. Howard

operationalnumerical models do not forecast this type of important mesoscale/large-scale interaction. The frequent occurrence of MCC systems over thecentral United States, where there are relatively densemeteorological observation nets, provides a uniqueopportunity for studying these systems, their internalstructures and circulations and interactions betweenthe background environment and large regions ofconvective storms. With this promising research poTABLE 1. Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) definition

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