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Martin L. M. Wong, Johnny C. L. Chan, and Wen Zhou

the difference is that the intensity change of TCs is controlled by some environmental conditions (e.g., sea surface temperature) that vary from case to case. For the decay over land, additional factors like the underlying topography and vortex structure could also play a role. The ability to forecast the decay rate accurately is important not only in estimating how long the severe weather would last, but in some cases also how strong the wind would become after a change of wind direction. In Hong

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Yumei Hu, Esben Almkvist, Torbjörn Gustavsson, and Jörgen Bogren

Brown , A. , S. Jackson , P. Murkin , P. Sheridan , A. Skea , S. Smith , and S. Vosper , 2008 : New techniques for route-based forecasting. Proc. 14th Standing Int. Road Weather Commission Conf. , Prague, Czech Republic, 17, http://sirwec.org/wp-content/uploads/Papers/2008-Prague/D-17.pdf . Bucknall , B. G. , 2005 : In praise of car thermometers . Weather , 60 ( 4 ), 98 , https://doi.org/10.1256/wea.218.04 . 10.1256/wea.218.04 Chapman , L. , and J. E. Thornes

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Jatin Kala, Tom J. Lyons, Ian J. Foster, and Udaysankar S. Nair

zero displacement height. Using these data, LG04 predicts a minimum nocturnal soil surface temperature and a canopy temperature and has shown reasonable comparisons with observations. Such a model has the potential to extend the current local detection of frost, based on screen temperatures <2°C, to forecast in-crop foliage temperatures. A major obstacle in the routine implementation of such a model is the difficulty in correctly parameterizing the downwelling longwave radiation. This is a

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Sergey Kravtsov, Natalia Tilinina, Yulia Zyulyaeva, and Sergey K. Gulev

outlines a suite of major applications for the proposed empirical climate emulators. Fig . 1. The flowchart of the paper’s analyses and presentation. 2. Dataset and preprocessing We utilized the SLP dataset from the 1979–2013 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ), with 6-hourly output restricted to the Northern Hemisphere at 0.75° × 0.75° spatial resolution (input box in Fig. 1 ). This dataset has a total length of N = 12 784 days and

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Yonghe Liu, Jinming Feng, Zongliang Yang, Yonghong Hu, and Jianlin Li

technique to infer local information ( Sunyer et al. 2015a ) by statistically relating local variables to the GCM large-scale variables (LSV). Another technique is dynamical downscaling (DD) ( Bao et al. 2015 ; Castro et al. 2005 ), which is computationally expensive. Usually, DD can produce gridded simulations covering a region with visually realistic spatial patterns that imply spatial dependence or spatial autocorrelation of precipitation, whereas SD mostly produces outputs at gauge sites and not

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J. G. Georg

AuGcs'r1970 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE 711NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEAn Objective Minimum Temperature Forecasting Technique Using the Economical Net Radiometer J. G. G~o~cESSA, Weather Bureau, Lakeland, Fla.30 January 1970 and 31 March 19701. Introduction The economical net radiometer (Suomi and Kuhn,1958) can be used as an instrument in making anobjective minimum temperature forecast. Brunt

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N. Nicholls

JANUARY 1984N.NICHOLLS143The Stability of Empirical Long-Range Forecast Techniques: A Case StudyN.NICHOLLSAustralian Numerical Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia(Manuscript received 31 May 1983, in final form 24 August 1983)ABSTRACTThe stability of simple linear regression equations for the long-range prediction of Australian spring rainfallwas studied. Specifically, the way in which the accuracy of the forecasts depends on the number of years ofdata used to derive the equations

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Qiong Wu, Hong-Qing Wang, Yi-Zhou Zhuang, Yin-Jing Lin, Yan Zhang, and Sai-Sai Ding

.0–10.8 is reaching a maximum for 15 convection cases in different time and space. From Table 1 , we can see 1) that the OT of the maximum BTD 12.0–10.8 is 1–2 h earlier than that of the maximum BTD 6.7–10.8 and 2) that most of the CTT min for BTD 12.0–10.8 are warmer than the tropopause temperature (obtained from 0.5° × 0.5° National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System analysis data), meaning that the corresponding cloud tops are still in the upper level of the troposphere

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Khan M. Shamshad

1967 N O T E S A N D C O R R E S P O N D E N C E 199NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCENote on a Technique of Long Range Forecasting for Monsoon Rain in West Pakistan KHAN M. S~4A~sm~z)Pakistan Meteorological Service, Karachi10 December 1962 and 12 September 19661. Introduction The prediction of rainfall during the monsoon season(June to September) is very important for the economyof the Indo-Pakistan region. The

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Gary Feng, Stacy Cobb, Zaid Abdo, Daniel K. Fisher, Ying Ouyang, Ardeshir Adeli, and Johnie N. Jenkins

been reported ( Roderick et al. 2009a , b ). Precipitation has high spatial variability ( Dyer and Mercer 2013 ), and therefore it is essential to conduct a detailed assessment of local temporal characteristics, patterns, and trends in rainfall, ET o , and water deficit. Long-term time series analysis of past trends at local scales could lead to development of reliable prediction tools for forecasting ET o , rainfall, and water deficit, which could provide for more efficient use of available water

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