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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

transfer calculations and those derived from combining satellite and ground-based observations of broadband radiative fluxes. In these studies, radiative transfer models typically underestimated the amount of absorption in the atmosphere relative to the observationally derived estimates, by up to 40% ( Cess et al. 1995 ). These results led to the theory that there was an unknown source (or sources) of atmospheric absorption being neglected in radiative transfer models. The detailed observations of

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P. R. Field, R. P. Lawson, P. R. A. Brown, G. Lloyd, C. Westbrook, D. Moisseev, A. Miltenberger, A. Nenes, A. Blyth, T. Choularton, P. Connolly, J. Buehl, J. Crosier, Z. Cui, C. Dearden, P. DeMott, A. Flossmann, A. Heymsfield, Y. Huang, H. Kalesse, Z. A. Kanji, A. Korolev, A. Kirchgaessner, S. Lasher-Trapp, T. Leisner, G. McFarquhar, V. Phillips, J. Stith, and S. Sullivan

1. Introduction Airborne observations of ice crystal concentrations are often found to exceed the concentration of ice nucleating particles (INPs) by many orders of magnitude (see, e.g., Mossop 1985 ; Hobbs and Rangno 1985 ; Beard 1992 ; Pruppacher and Klett 1997 ; Hobbs and Rangno 1998 ; Cantrell and Heymsfield 2005 ; DeMott et al. 2016 ). In the 1970s ( Mossop et al. 1970 ; Hallett and Mossop 1974 ) the discrepancy between expected ice particle concentrations formed through primary

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

-current Clough–Kniezys–Davis (CKD) water vapor continuum formulation ( Clough et al. 1989 , 1992 ) and a dual-channel microwave water radiometer (MWR) for continuous column water vapor amount observations ( Westwater et al. 1999 ). TOGA COARE also provided an opportunity for the TWP team to assess possible locations for a permanent site in the TWP warm pool region. Based on a climatological assessment, largely done using satellite observations, the team settled on Kavieng or Manus Island, PNG. Both places

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Steven K. Krueger, Hugh Morrison, and Ann M. Fridlind

1. The GEWEX Cloud System Study The Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) was created in 1992. As described by Browning et al. (1993 , p. 387), “The focus of GCSS is on cloud systems spanning the mesoscale rather than on individual clouds. Observations from field programs will be used to develop and validate the cloud-resolving models, which in turn will be used as test-beds to develop the parameterizations for the large-scale models.” The most important

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D. L. Sisterson, R. A. Peppler, T. S. Cress, P. J. Lamb, and D. D. Turner

more unique scientific studies that have been made with the SGP observations. Dr. Fred Luther was one of the motivating forces that led ultimately to the establishment of the ARM Program ( Ellingson et al. 2016 , chapter 1; Cress and Sisterson 2016 , chapter 5), and as such the SGP site was dedicated in Luther’s name in 1992. The dedication plaque reads “During his all-too-short career, Dr. Luther made many outstanding contributions to the field of atmospheric research, particularly to furthering

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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes

inspection of all the data by dedicated personnel: first, by graduate students within the field during SHEBA and, later, in Fairbanks, until the ARM Data Quality Office was established. 4. Scientific contributions The SHEBA project provided an early focus for much of the scientific effort. The SHEBA suite of instruments ( Uttal et al. 2002 ) included cloud radar and lidar, a microwave radiometer, a spectral infrared radiometer, radiosonde soundings, and longwave and shortwave broadband radiometers. These

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Ismail Gultepe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martin Gallagher, Luisa Ickes, and Darrel Baumgardner

, particularly at sizes less than 50 μ m; 4) growth by diffusion and aggregation of ice; 5) ice crystal optical properties; and 6) Earth’s surface characteristics, such as moisture and albedo. Much of the missing information is not only due to the paucity of observations that have been made in ice fog but also because of the limitations and uncertainties of the sensors that gather the data. In the remainder of this chapter the reader will be introduced to how ice fog forms and evolves, accompanied by what

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Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

. Torn , and J. A. Berry , 2004 : A portable eddy covariance system for the measurement of ecosystem–atmosphere exchange of CO 2 , water vapor, and energy . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 21 , 639 – 650 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0426(2004)021<0639:APECSF>2.0.CO;2 . Bindlish , R. , T. Jackson , S. Ruijing , M. Cosh , S. Yueh , and S. Dinardo , 2009 : Combined passive and active microwave observations of soil moisture during CLASIC . IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. , 6 , 644 – 648

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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

be specified, either from model data, observations, or some combination of the two. If the fluxes are set to zero, the SCM becomes one type of a radiative–convective model (RCM). One way to think of an RCM ( Ramanathan and Coakley 1978 ) is as a horizontally averaged GCM, with the horizontal averaging over a global domain resulting in zero horizontal flux convergence. The horizontal fluxes also can be applied to cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and large-eddy simulation (LES) models, which allows

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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

observation which relates to total rainfall through the DSD. In recent times, exploiting the radar transmit/receive polarization state has enhanced radar capabilities by discriminating the phase of the hydrometeors ( Bringi et al. 1990 ). These three ground observations of precipitation (gauges, disdrometers, and radars) were the primary input for hydrologic models for many years. However, beginning with the inception of operational passive microwave imagery on board the operational Defense Meteorological

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