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S. H. Gross

decreasing temperature and altitude. Other things beingequal, the effect of the latent load is always greatest atlow levels and higher temperatures; thus, the effect ofradiational divergence is less apparent when observingtemperature soundings at low levels. REFERENCESKuhn, P. M., 1963: Measured effective long-wave emissivity of clouds. Mon. Wea. R~., 91, 635-640.On the Exospheric Temperature of Hydrogen-Dominated Planetary Atmospheres S. H. GROSS Polytechnic Institute

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Randal D. Koster, Yehui Chang, and Siegfried D. Schubert

general circulation of the atmosphere, motivating the GCM experiments discussed below. 3. Focused experiments A hypothesis consistent with Fig. 1 is that the soil moisture pattern seen in Fig. 1a persists into the summer and, during July, affects the surface turbulent fluxes and (perhaps) precipitation in such a way as to promote the wave pattern seen in Fig. 1d , perhaps by inducing a traveling planetary wave in the troposphere to phase lock over the continent. The wave, in turn, might then

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Rolando R. Garcia

1 JUNE 1991 P, OLANDO R. GARC1A 1405Parameterization of Planetary Wave Breaking in the Middle Atmosphere ROLANDO R. GARCIANational Center for Atmospheric Research, * Boulder, Colorado(Manuscript received 30 April 1990, in final form 14 January 1991)ABSTRACT A parameterization of planetary wave breaking in the middle atmosphere has been developed and tested ina numerical model which

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R. E. Samueison

AUt;UST1970 R. E. SAMUELSON 711Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in Cloudy Planetary Atmospheres R. E. SAMUEl SONRadiation ~hyslcs Branch, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.(Manuscript received 12 March 1970)ABSTRACT This study is restricted to an assessment of the degree to which nomlocal thermodynamic equilibrium(non-LTE) is important in cloudy

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Richard W. Stewart

744 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLUME 25Radiative Terms in the Thermal Conduction Equation for Planetary Atmospheres RICHARD W. STEWARTInstitute for Space Studies, Go&lard Space Flight Center, NASA, New York, 3?. Y.(Manuscript received 16 January 1968, in revised form 22 March 1968) Terms in the thermal conduction equation arising from infrared emissions and absorptions by

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James E. Hansen

120 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPI1ERIC SCIENCES VoLu.~I~28 Multiple Scattering of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres. Part I. The Doubling Method J~s E. HA~sv.~ Goddard Institute for Space Studies, NASA, New York, N. Y. (Manuscript received 15 September 11970) ABSTRACT The doubling method is described for multiple scattering of light in

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Stamen I. Dolaptchiev and Rupert Klein

atmosphere of the PGEs the barotropic flow has to be specified because there is no advection of relative vorticity in the PGEs. The novel evolution equation in the PR provides a prognostic alternative relative to temperature-based diagnostic closures for the barotropic flow adopted in reduced-complexity planetary models ( Petoukhov et al. 2000 ). The PR model takes into account large variations of the background stratification and of the Coriolis parameter, but it does not describe the synoptic eddies

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James C. McWilliams and Peter R. Gent

VOL. 37, NO. 8 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AUGUST 1980Intermediate Models of Planetary Circulations in the Atmosphere and Ocean JAMES C. MCWILLIAMS AND PETER R. GENTNational Center for Atmospheric Research, ~ Boulder, CO 80307(Manuscript received 29 October 1979, in final form 28 April 1980) ABSTRACT Large-scale extratropical motions (with dimensions

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Takeshi Kuroda, Alexander S. Medvedev, Erdal Yiğit, and Paul Hartogh

1. Introduction Internal gravity waves (GWs) are an important mechanism of transporting energy and momentum between atmospheric layers in stably stratified planetary atmospheres. Their essential role has widely been recognized in the terrestrial middle atmosphere ( Fritts and Alexander 2003 ) and thermosphere [see the recent review by Yiğit and Medvedev (2015) ]. There are numerous observational and theoretical indications that GWs of tropospheric origin play a similar significant role on Mars

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Kunio M. Sayanagi, Adam P. Showman, and Timothy E. Dowling

simulations. Concluding remarks are in the final section. 2. Model setup a. Numerical model We use the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) atmosphere model by Dowling et al. (1998) to perform our numerical experiments. The model solves the hydrostatic primitive equations with the potential temperature θ as the vertical coordinate. Because our main focus here is to study the processes that may be involved in the formation of Jupiter’s zonal jets, many of our baseline parameters represent

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