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Steven K. Krueger, Hugh Morrison, and Ann M. Fridlind

: Cloud-system resolving model simulations of aerosol indirect effects on tropical deep convection and its thermodynamic environment. Atmos. Chem. Phys ., 11 , 10 503–10 523 , doi: 10.5194/acp-11-10503-2011 . Morrison , H. , J. O. Pinto , J. A. Curry , and G. M. McFarquhar , 2008 : Sensitivity of modeled Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus to cloud condensation and ice nuclei over regionally varying surface conditions. J. Geophys. Res ., 113 , D05203 , doi: 10.1029/2007JD008729 . Morrison

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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

general circulation of the atmosphere based on physical principles ( Abbe 1892 ), including the Coriolis force, well in advance of work by Teisserenc de Bort (1883) , Exner (1913) , Walker (1923) , and others. Figure 21-3 shows the Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure and prevailing winds for January from his analysis. Dall’s (1879) regional map for the same month ( Fig. 21-4 , top panel) shows a more accurate placement of the Aleutian low based on station data that were unavailable to Ferrel

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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

observations and overall difficulty. The figure is made by the coauthors using a database provided by F. Yang, of NOAA/NCEP. m. Regional models As in the previous era, many NWP centers (ECMWF excepted) also dedicated some resources to shorter-range regional models with higher resolution and more sophisticated parameterizations of subgrid-scale processes. These regional models provided improved precipitation fields, orographic and coastal effects, and representation of clouds and near-surface details

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

with unresolved motions of the water. We focus on dynamical and numerical aspects, and do not discuss regional and coastal ocean applications, biogeochemistry, or process modeling. Further discussion of ocean physics and dynamics is given in the chapter by Carl Wunsch and colleague, in this volume ( Wunsch and Ferrari 2019 ). Even sea ice and terrestrial ice sheet models can be said to have dynamical cores, in the sense that they include dynamical equations that govern the motions of the ice. Prior

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Allison McComiskey and Richard A. Ferrare

adequate for closure studies. However, improved knowledge of source strengths of anthropogenic aerosols came with the realization that aerosol loading and optical properties are highly variable both seasonally and geographically. It became evident that inclusion of the local aerosol was required for closure studies and for the characterization of regional and global impacts necessary for improved understanding of climate change. Thus, it became necessary for ARM to address more realistic aerosol

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Ulrich Schumann and Andrew J. Heymsfield

simulates similar diurnal cycle results for given traffic and meteorological data from ECMWF, but only when increasing humidity by about 10% in the upper troposphere. Extrapolation with global/regional RF ratios from several models implies a global net RF of about 50 mW m −2 (40–80 mW m −2 ; Schumann and Graf 2013 ). These results were used to assess the mean RF and its uncertainty range ( IPCC 2013 ). Recently, CoCiP was run coupled with CAM3+/IMPACT to study the effects of humidity exchanges between

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Margaret A. LeMone, Wayne M. Angevine, Christopher S. Bretherton, Fei Chen, Jimy Dudhia, Evgeni Fedorovich, Kristina B. Katsaros, Donald H. Lenschow, Larry Mahrt, Edward G. Patton, Jielun Sun, Michael Tjernström, and Jeffrey Weil

1. Introduction How do we define the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL)? Here are some definitions from textbooks: “that part of the troposphere that is directly influenced by the presence of the earth’s surface, and responds to surface forcings with a timescale of about an hour or less” ( Stull 1988 , p. 2). “the layer of air directly above the earth’s surface in which the effects of the surface (friction, heating, and cooling) are felt directly on time scales less than a day, and in which

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David A. Randall, Anthony D. Del Genio, Leo J. Donner, William D. Collins, and Stephen A. Klein

: 10.1016/S0167-2789(99)00104-9 . Greenwald , T. J. , G. L. Stephens , S. A. Christopher , and T. H. Vonder Haar , 1995 : Observations of the global characteristics and regional radiative effects of marine cloud liquid water . J. Climate , 8 , 2928 – 2946 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<2928:OOTGCA>2.0.CO;2 . Gregory , D. , 2001 : Estimation of entrainment rate in simple models of convective clouds . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 127 , 53 – 72 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49712757104

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Eli J. Mlawer, Michael J. Iacono, Robert Pincus, Howard W. Barker, Lazaros Oreopoulos, and David L. Mitchell

drives the large-scale dynamics that moves energy from the tropics toward the poles. Radiation calculations are therefore essential for climate and weather simulations, but are themselves quite complex even without considering the effects of variable and inhomogeneous clouds. Clear-sky radiative transfer calculations have to account for thousands of absorption lines due to water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases, which are irregularly distributed across the spectrum and have shapes dependent on

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

development of crop and agriculture management models in ESMs is still in its infancy. For instance, substantial uncertainties exist in the modeled temperature effects of irrigation on regional climate in ESMs ( Kueppers et al. 2007 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ). Future priorities should focus on representing complex interactions between agricultural management and water-system components at various spatial and temporal scales. e. Impact of irrigation on climate Many areas of the world have seen a recent

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