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Tianyi Zhang, Xiaomao Lin, Danny H. Rogers, and Freddie R. Lamm

% surface irrigation system and complete adoption of greater-efficiency irrigation systems is probably unrealistic because surface irrigation predominates in some regions for certain crops and for salinity control. Additionally, more advanced irrigation infrastructure often requires a larger investment that cannot be offset by the crop revenue ( Seo et al. 2008 ; Schuck et al. 2005 ). Therefore, we prefer to view this result for the western United States not as predictions of actual adaptation but

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Ruixin Yang, Allison Fairley, and Wonsun Park

generate the SOCV. The source of heat is inflow of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), which indicates a large-scale link between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The SOCV signal generated in the South Atlantic also propagates to the North Atlantic via different processes. Swingedouw et al. (2009) proposed three ways of connections: deep-water adjustment via oceanic waves, salinity anomaly advection, and wind impact on the NADW cell. Each has different response time scales in the model, of

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Scott R. Loarie, David B. Lobell, Gregory P. Asner, and Christopher B. Field

large albedo increase; (iii) the town of San Luis, Argentina; and (iv) a saline lake (Salinas del Bebedero). (e),(f) Quickbird images accessed through Google Earth showing a close up of the recent increase in albedo (ii) resulting from a decrease in vegetative cover likely from grazing. Figure 7. An example of albedo decreases associated with reservoirs in arid regions. Gray areas mask low quality data. (a) Change in albedo in a region of interest near the

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Y. Govender, E. Cuevas, L. D. S. Sternberg, and M. R. Jury

the next sampling period. A subsample of the rainwater samples was tested for salinity using a Brix refractometer at the time of collection. Vacutainers were stored in a refrigerator (4°C) in the laboratory until analysis at the Laboratory of Stable Isotope Ecology in Tropical Ecosystems (University of Miami). A total of 49 rainwater samples were analyzed in triplicate for δ 18 O and δD by mass spectrometry using methods described by Vendramini and Sternberg ( Vendramini and Sternberg 2007

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Gerald V. Frost, Uma S. Bhatt, Matthew J. Macander, Amy S. Hendricks, and M. Torre Jorgenson

-dominated vegetation is adapted to saline conditions and sedimentation provides a source of soil nutrients. We found no clear trend in vegetation cover in coastal plain, although we did observe local mortality of shrubs due to salt-kill, as well as ground subsidence caused by permafrost thaw ( Whitley et al. 2018 ). Reports from YKD elders provide intriguing evidence of vegetation changes both during the intercomparison period, and entirely preceding the satellite record. These reports provide evidence of stress

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Forrest M. Hoffman, William W. Hargrove Jr., David J. Erickson III, and Robert J. Oglesby

1. Introduction Understanding the physical environment that affects the life cycles of all plants and animals (including humans) is of paramount importance as natural and anthropogenic environmental changes occur. The environment is characterized by a large number of conditions, including land surface properties (soil type, elevation, rivers and lakes, vegetation, etc.), ocean properties (sea surface temperatures, salinity, circulation patterns, etc.), and atmospheric properties (chemical

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Philip Potter, Navin Ramankutty, Elena M. Bennett, and Simon D. Donner

cumulative gridcell area for harvested grid cells as a percentage of total global gridcell area. Figure 7. Global map of coastal hypoxic areas in relation to N application in fertilizers. Figure 2a is overlain with selected global basins that discharge into saline receiving waters (where nitrogen represents the dominant limiting nutrient) and location of documented hypoxic areas from Diaz and Rosenberg ( Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 ). Table

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

Earth’s oceans, including effects on circulation and salinity near the mouth of large rivers. For example, the thermohaline circulation is closely linked to the freshwater balance of the Arctic Ocean basin ( Driscoll and Haug, 1998 ). In semiclosed inland seas, such as the Mediterranean, circulation is strongly influenced by riverine inputs of freshwater. River discharge plays a key role in transport of dissolved and particulate materials within and from all the continents ( Ludwig and Probst, 1998

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Marcello Gugliotta, Jonathan G. Fairman Jr., David M. Schultz, and Stephen S. Flint

sediments expel water and contract because of a salinity contrast). The finer-grained beds also contain bidirectional ripples, interpreted as due to the influence of tides. The coarser-grained beds have been interpreted as being deposited during river-flood conditions, whereas the finer-grained beds represent low-stage interflood conditions ( Gugliotta et al. 2015 ; Figure 4 ). Figure 3. Representative photos of interbedding from the Lajas Formation. (a) Alternations of river-flood beds and mixed

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

climatological-mean state of 1 January. Present-day oceanic temperature and salinity were used to initialize the ocean model. It is necessary to have the upper ocean reach a reasonable state of equilibrium to investigate interannual climate variability ( Kantha and Clayson 2000 ). In our simulations, the annual-mean SST takes approximately 10 to 20 years to reach equilibrium, which is generally consistent with previous studies ( Abe et al. 2003 ; Wohlfahrt et al. 2004 ; Kitoh 2004 ). Deep soil moisture

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