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Wesley J. Rondinelli, Brian K. Hornbuckle, Jason C. Patton, Michael H. Cosh, Victoria A. Walker, Benjamin D. Carr, and Sally D. Logsdon

other chemicals that pollute rivers, lakes, and streams. Foreknowledge of the water stored in soil may enable improved forecasts of the location, timing, and severity of flooding ( Komma et al. 2008 ; Wanders et al. 2014 ). The European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite was launched in 2009 in order to make observations of near-surface soil moisture, which is the water content of the first few centimeters of the soil at the soil surface ( Kerr et al. 2010 ). The SMOS

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Y. Malbéteau, O. Merlin, G. Balsamo, S. Er-Raki, S. Khabba, J. P. Walker, and L. Jarlan

description of soil moisture in space and time is therefore critical for understanding the continental water cycle and for achieving efficient and sustainable water management ( Entekhabi 1995 ; Gao et al. 2014 ; Rodriguez-Iturbe 2000 ). Satellite remote sensing is often the most practical and effective method to observe the land surface soil moisture over large geographical areas. The recent Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in 2009, operates at L band (the optimal microwave

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H. Lievens, A. Al Bitar, N. E. C. Verhoest, F. Cabot, G. J. M. De Lannoy, M. Drusch, G. Dumedah, H.-J. Hendricks Franssen, Y. Kerr, S. K. Tomer, B. Martens, O. Merlin, M. Pan, M. J. van den Berg, H. Vereecken, J. P. Walker, E. F. Wood, and V. R. N. Pauwels

1. Introduction The updating of land surface models (LSMs) through remote sensing data assimilation is well known for its potential to improve hydrologic model predictions (e.g., Pauwels et al. 2001 , 2002 ; Crow and Wood 2003 ; Reichle et al. 2007 ; Pan et al. 2009 ). The significance of soil moisture SM observations for hydrologic predictions has fostered the development of remote sensing platforms, such as the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Kerr et al. 2001 ) and the Soil Moisture

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Peter J. Shellito, Eric E. Small, and Michael H. Cosh

al. 2012 ). The present work calibrates a hydrologic model to two large-scale observations of near-surface soil moisture: 1) basin-averaged in situ measurements and 2) remotely sensed observations from the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission. Multiyear data are available for both. Because soil moisture alone has never been used to calibrate a model at this temporal and spatial scale, we limit our study to only four parameters that directly affect soil

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Gift Dumedah and Jeffrey P. Walker

employed to assimilate the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) level 2 soil moisture data into the JULES model. The distribution of JULES parameter values associated with the updated ensemble members for EnKF and EDA were evaluated, together with their contribution to soil moisture estimation. These findings are important to refine DA procedures through multi-objective evolutionary strategies to adequately account for contributions from convergence of model parameters. The EnKF and the EDA have

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Ashley J. Wright, Jeffrey P. Walker, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

events. At times of prolonged drought, reaches of the river have ceased to flow. The length of the perennial channels is 78 km while the maximum elevation difference along the channel is 308 m. Reasons for choosing the analysis period from 1 January 2007 through 31 March 2013 include the availability of good-quality rainfall, PET, and streamflow data; three major floods; and an overlap in Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR

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Andreas Stohl and Paul James

in the atmosphere is also a driving force of the thermohaline circulation ( Weaver et al. 1999 ). The North Atlantic Ocean, for instance, is a relatively strong source of water vapor through net evaporation, in contrast to the North Pacific Ocean. This leads to a higher sea surface salinity in the North Atlantic than in the North Pacific Ocean. Fresher water flowing through the Bering Strait from the Pacific into the Arctic and North Atlantic Ocean partly compensates this, but the higher sea

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Sujay V. Kumar, Michael Jasinski, David M. Mocko, Matthew Rodell, Jordan Borak, Bailing Li, Hiroko Kato Beaudoing, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E; 2002–11), the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT; 2007–15), the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; 2012–15) mission, and NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; 2015 onward) mission. Similarly, snow depth retrievals from a number of passive microwave instruments including SMMR, SSM/I, AMSR-E, and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2; 2012–15) are employed in the reanalysis. In addition, snow cover products from the

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G. Balsamo, J-F. Mahfouf, S. Bélair, and G. Deblonde

extracted ( Jackson et al. 2002 ) as supported by airborne radiometric studies. In addition to the presently available platforms, L-band microwave observations from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission by the European Space Agency (ESA; Kerr et al. 2001) are expected to be available in 2008. As far as surface temperature is concerned, current model accuracy has not allowed the assimilation of satellite-derived skin temperature, although this is certainly the most frequently observed

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Fred Moshary, and Michael Piasecki

mean sea level). Lake Azuéi is a slightly smaller and less saline lake located about 50 m above Lake Enriquillo. The lakes are surrounded by two high-elevation sierras to the north [Neyba, ~2400 m above mean sea level (MSL)] and south (Bahoruco, ~2700 m MSL), providing a large catchment area while isolating the watershed from the ocean and, along with the mountain shadow effects of the much higher Central Range, the approaching northeasterly trade winds. The lakes have been experiencing dramatic

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