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Dev Niyogi, Ming Lei, Chandra Kishtawal, Paul Schmid, and Marshall Shepherd

; Hand and Shepherd 2009 ; Niyogi et al. 2011 ; Kishtawal et al. 2010 ; Smith et al. 2012 ; Yeung et al. 2015 ; Haberlie et al. 2015 ). Studies such as Pielke et al. (2011) document recent efforts in understanding the climatic impacts of LULCC. In general, the LULCC impact on rainfall is attributed to dynamic mesoscale boundaries such as changes in atmospheric convergence zones ( Rozoff et al. 2003 ; van den Heever and Cotton 2007 ; Lei et al. 2008 ) and aerosol impacts ( Rosenfeld 2000

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L-M. Rebelo, G. B. Senay, and M. P. McCartney

and cultural activities of local people are dependent on the annual floods to regenerate the floodplain grasses, which feed their cattle. However, because of the protracted civil war in the region with the latest episode lasting from 1983 to 2005, very little is known about the current status of the biodiversity or the livelihood practices that are supported by the wetland. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in 2005, ended 22 years of civil war, and in 2006 a core area of 57 000 km 2

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Mark R. Jury

plume from the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers that spreads across the eastern Caribbean via the North Brazil Current. The low salinity [<34.6 parts per thousand (ppt)] plume is buoyant and forms a shallow stable layer. Discharges from the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers average ~2.5 × 10 5 m 3 s −1 ( Perry et al. 1996 ; Pailler et al. 1999 ) and tend to peak in summer. As the plume spreads into the east Antilles it encounters incoming solar radiation of 230 W m −2 and a trade wind shadow next to the

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Diandong Ren, Lance M. Leslie, Rong Fu, Robert E. Dickinson, and Xiang Xin

. A numerical modeling system As reviewed by van Asch et al. ( van Asch et al. 2007 ), current methods used for landslide analysis are highly varied. Empirical or statistical techniques generally are applicable to predicting landslide susceptibility at the regional scale, whereas more process-based approaches are applied at the local scale. This study uses an advanced model, namely, a Scalable and Extensible Geo-fluid Model of the Environment (SEGMENT; see Figure 1 ), which accounts

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M. P. Maneta and N. L. Silverman

the feedbacks between vegetation, hydrology, and the atmosphere to build a more integrated and realistic description of the hydrologic, ecologic and atmospheric processes ( Rodriguez-Iturbe 2000 ). While many models integrate boundary layer processes and hydrology (e.g., Liang et al. 1994 ; Peters-Lidard et al. 1997 ; Wigmosta et al. 1994 ), there are relatively few models currently available that integrate vegetation dynamics in the description of the energy and water exchanges at the

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Kwang-Yul Kim, James J. O'Brien, and Albert I. Barcilon

December 1993. These datasets were subsequently interpolated onto 2.5° × 2.5° arrays. The sea surface temperature anomaly dataset was further extended to May 1998 by splicing the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set [COADS ( Woodruff et al., 1987 )]. This study also uses the 1° × 1° monthly averaged assimilated subsurface temperature anomaly and zonal current anomaly data from Giese and Carton ( Giese and Carton, 1999 ) and Carton et al. ( Carton et al., 2000a ; Carton et al., 2000b ). These

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J. Marshall Shepherd

1. Introduction Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land-use change. Although currently only 1.2% of the Earth’s land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. A recent paper by Elvidge et al. ( Elvidge et al. 2004 ) indicated that the density of the impervious surface area (ISA) for the conterminous United States is 112 610 km 2 , roughly the size of the state of Ohio and slightly larger than the area of

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Z. M. Subin, W. J. Riley, J. Jin, D. S. Christianson, M. S. Torn, and L. M. Kueppers

California-specific plant functional types (PFTs) within CLM3.5. We used a fine-resolution (20 km) regional climate model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)–CLM3.5, which is described below] to evaluate the impact of vegetation change on the California regional climate. The use of several vegetation scenarios with both historical climate (HC) and future climate (FC) boundary conditions allowed us to separate the biogeophysical effects of local vegetation from the effects of large

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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

4 classification scheme. The lead author, who rotates each month between the three countries, merges the GIS shape files into a continental depiction. Continental drought indicators, computed using the same methodology and calibration periods from data provided by the three countries, are used as guidance to adjust the depictions across the international boundaries where disagreement between the national DMs exists. The continental indicators currently include the SPI, Palmer drought indices

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Bryan Pijanowski, Nathan Moore, Dasaraden Mauree, and Dev Niyogi

1. Introduction There is growing evidence that land-use change has an important impact on regional and global climate ( Cox et al. 2000 ; Cramer et al. 2001 ; Pielke et al. 2002 ; Xue et al. 2004 ; Feddema et al. 2005a ; Bonan 2008 ; Pielke and Niyogi 2010 ; Mahmood et al. 2010 ). Current efforts in developing strategies for adapting to and mitigating future climate change, however, have focused primarily on reducing greenhouse gases related to radiative forcings ( Pielke et al. 2002

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