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Miles B. Lawrence

storms in either the Gulf of Mexicoor Caribbean Sea. Two storms in the central north Atlantic recurved toward the east at unusually lowlatitudes. Hurricane Belle struck Long Island after weakening dramatically during the 24 h period prior tolandfall.1. General summary There were eight named tropical cyclones in thenorth Atlantic during the 1976 hurricane season. Ofthese, six reached hurricane force. In addition, threesystems were identified as subtropical storms. Tracksof the tropical and

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Paul J. Hebert

experienced gale force winds. In the UnitedStates, only 13% of the 3200 n mi of coastline alongthe Gulf and Atlantic coasts escaped tropical cyclone warnings. There were more storms in the deep tropics,United States landfalls and intense hurricanes thanin recent years. Fig. 2 and Table 1 give the tracksand statistics of the 1979 named tropical cyclonesand a late October subtropical storm. The total ofeight named storms of which five became hurricanesis below the most recent 30-year averages of ten

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H. C. SUMNER

tropical storms that developed winds of hurricane force (75 m. p. h. or more) were also equally divided in this respect. Damage to property and crops in the United States, resulting from these storms, has been estimated at $18,400,000. Only three persons lost their lives. The small number of fatalities compared with the figures for property damage is unusual when compared with the ratio for previous seasons, but is in line with a trend that has been evident for many years. The trend stems from the fact

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GORDON E. DUNN

) 0300 CST on t'he 24th. Corpus Christi reporteda tide of 3.5 ft. above mean low water. It appears thatthere was no wall cloucl. There was some mild curvatureon t'he rain bands seen on airborne radar on t.he 23d nntlthe Dow Chemical Co. radar at Freeport' near noon 011 the231 reported a ch~~r~tct'eristica11~- curved rain band (fig. 2).Apparent cloud centers were reported by rtttlus at,Victoria and Kell- Air Force Base on several occ:tsions.Three fishing piers were wrecked on Clopano Bay; oneshrimp

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Robert A. Baum

more than onestorm active on the same date, the tabulation includesthe number of storms. As an example, July 24 with Hurricane Doreen and Storm Emily counted as two tropicalcyclone days. Each day counts as the highest intensityof the storm. Reconnaissance flights into the storm areas were conducted by the U. S. Air Force 32 times on 29 flights.Doreen and Emily were investigate, d 22 July by separateaircraft and Doreen was investigated twice by the sameaircraft 20 July. On the average, fifteen en

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Paul J. Hebert

warming of the environment, and satellitephotographs first showed some of the cloud featuresassociated with tropical or subtropical cyclones. TheDaytona Beach National Weather Service radar and anAir Force reconnaissance plane located the centerabout 100 n mi east of Daytona Beach late that day.The depression moved slowly northward parallel toand within 100 n mi of the Florida and Georgia coast~line, gradually acquiring tropical characteristics. Highlevel northerly winds over the depression

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D. M. Rodgers
,
K. W. Howard
, and
E. C. Johnston

intense thunderstorms passed oversouthwest Oklahoma producing 18 tornadoes, largehail (described as having size and shape resemblingcharcoal briquettes), and numerous funnel clouds. Twopeople were killed and 59 injured by tornadoes. AltusAir Force Base and the town of Altus sustained Over$200 million in damages. Later in its life cycle, themesosystem produced over 12 cm of rain, resulting inflash floods and one more death. Oklahoma sufferedadditional severe weather four days later as two moreMCCs

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Robert A. Case

openNorth Atlantic.b. Hurricane Bob, 21-26 July Bob was a tropical storm that briefly reached hurricane force before moving inland across the SouthCarolina coast. Satellite pictures suggest that Bob developed withinthe cloud remnants of a tropical wave which movedinto the eastern Gulf of Mexico on 20 July. On the21 st, a reconnaissance aircraft found that a low pressurecenter had formed offthe southwest Florida coast. Thesystem moved slowly eastward and was named TropicalStorm Bob at 2200 GMT 22

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Edward N. Rappaport
and
Max Mayfield

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 120the Synoptic Analysis Branch of the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service, andthe Air Force Global Weather Central. These centersprovided to the NHC real-time estimates of positionand intensity by applying the Dvorak (1984) tropicalcyclone analysis technique to imagery from theGeostationary Operational Environmental SatelliteGOES-7 and polar-orbiting satellites. In 1991 the estimates

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John R. Hope

developed the characteristics of awell organized hurricane. No wall cloud ever formed.The lowest pressure was 999 mb on 28 September. It isconcluded that the hurricane force winds observedoccurred during short-period accelerations. Weakening began on the 30th, when satellite picturesshowed the low-level circulation center separating fromthe main convective cloud mass as the storm slowlyapproached an upper trough and increasing verticalshears. The system was downgraded to a tropical depression on 2

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