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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

has been gained in using SCMs with ARM data, and, over time, the role of SCMs in climate research has been expanded and clarified. The use of SCMs clearly has a valuable place in the hierarchy of modeling approaches, which is needed to improve the realism and trustworthiness of climate models. Of course, a wide variety of techniques has long been employed to test and validate physical process parameterizations in both weather and climate models. One straightforward method is to compare the results

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Robert G. Fovell, Yizhe Peggy Bu, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Wen-wen Tung, Yang Cao, Hung-Chi Kuo, Li-huan Hsu, and Hui Su

research. In May 2005, Professor Yanai published a review of the origins of the words “typhoon,” “tai-feng,” and “tai-fu,” which was cowritten with his last doctoral student, Professor Chih-wen Hung, and the first author, Robert G. Fovell. The first author’s interest in TCs commenced in the summer of 2004 with the release of version 2.0 of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model’s Advanced Research WRF (ARW) core. He decided to familiarize himself with this new, more powerful ARW system by

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen (WBF; or the Bergeron–Findeisen) process and is one of the cornerstones of cloud physics. Early airborne in situ observations utilizing primitive replicator and impactor techniques showed that mixed-phase clouds are ubiquitous and that ice particles and liquid droplets can coexist at cloud temperatures as low as −40°C ( Peppler 1940 ; Findeisen 1942 ; Weickmann 1945 ; Byers and Braham 1949 ; Zak 1949 ; Borovikov et al. 1963 ). Significant progress in the measurement and

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Beat Schmid, Robert G. Ellingson, and Greg M. McFarquhar

organizational and operational paradigms. The separately funded ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program carried out 12 missions between 1993 and 2006 relying on UAVs and piloted aircraft. The ARM-UAV program was established originally to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for use with a new class of high-altitude, long-endurance UAVs and to demonstrate these instruments and measurement techniques in a series of field campaigns designed to support the climate change community

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

Roger Revelle; see Keeling 1960 ). Ground-based and airborne remote sensing techniques to measure ozone column amounts and vertical profile evolved at great pace in the post–World War II period. Techniques include passive remote sensing such as differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTS), microwave radiometry, and active remote sensing using differential absorption lidar. Absorption or emission features of ozone as a function of wavelength

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

present ( Chang et al. 2016 ), the advent of airborne platforms and associated novel measurement techniques—both in situ and via remote sensing—accelerated the viability of field studies that could probe more realistic conditions for the broad variety of cloud types, ranging from fog and stratus to deep tropical convection. It was also realized early on that dynamics and microphysics were strongly coupled, and that modeling efforts must represent both processes. Early developments of coupled models

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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

fluxes ( Revercomb et al. 2003 ). The problems with water vapor profiles led to an intensive study of water vapor measurements including a series of field campaigns beginning with the Water Vapor Intensive Operation Period in 1996 ( Revercomb et al. 2003 ; Turner et al. 2016b ). These studies led to innovative techniques for measuring water vapor including use of a two-channel microwave radiometer to mitigate differences across batches of radiosondes ( Turner et al. 2003 ), use of the AERI to

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

et al. 2008 ) stochastic approach to cloud overlap had similar residuals as the reference approach used with RRTM in BBHRP, but performed significantly better than the existing European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational shortwave code. ECMWF subsequently adopted RRTMG/McICA as its new shortwave code ( Ahlgrimm et al. 2016 , chapter 28). In addition, the BBHRP dataset also provided most of the cases used in the Continuous Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

program that would eventually be known as the TOGA program ( McPhaden et al. 2010a ). The failure to predict or detect the 1982/83 El Niño in a timely way underscored the need for TOGA to develop reliable El Niño forecasting techniques and a real-time ocean observing system that could support both seasonal prediction and research. TOGA’s emphasis on seasonal forecasting was rewarded early with successful prediction of the 1986/87 El Niño ( Cane et al. 1986 ; Barnett et al. 1988 ). To address TOGA

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Taroh Matsuno

with explicit convection as well as the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast’s highest-resolution model with parameterized convection. Results of the project are reported in Dirmeyer et al. (2012) and Kinter et al. (2013) . Some recent results using NICAM are described in Oouchi and Satoh (2016 , chapter 14). 6. Midlatitude versus tropical meteorology It may be fair to say that the aquaplanet experiment corresponds to a tropical version of Norman Phillips’ numerical experiment of

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