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Gert-Jan Steeneveld and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano

An active learning approach is a successful method in teaching atmospheric modelling of the atmospheric environment at the master’s level. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) has rapidly developed from basic single-layer barotropic models in the 1950s to very advanced high-resolution Earth system models. Bauer et al. (2015) explained in detail why weather forecasting has undergone a key silent revolution in society, where the current-day global models show skill for lead times up to 7 days

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Daniel T. Lindsey, Dan Bikos, and Lewis Grasso

feature owing to differential absorption of water vapor between the 10.3- and 12.3- µ m bands. In practice, operational weather forecasters may be able to occasionally make use of this technique to locate low-level boundaries. Certain conditions are required: 1) clear skies in the absence of significant aerosol concentrations such as smoke or dust, 2) temperature decreasing with height in a region of locally larger water vapor content, and 3) sufficient surface convergence to produce a local pooling

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Ross N. Hoffman and Robert Atlas

Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) global mesoscale NR (G5NR; Putman et al. 2015 ). This new system replaces the OSSE capability based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) T511 NR ( Andersson and Masutani 2010 ). As we have developed the new OSSE system, we see many opportunities for further improvements and anticipate that some of these potential improvements will become requirements in the future as the OSSE technique

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Brian C. Ancell, Allison Bogusz, Matthew J. Lauridsen, and Christian J. Nauert

Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model ( Skamarock et al. 2008 )]. The accuracy of numerical schemes, ad hoc techniques such as numerical diffusion ( Knievel et al. 2007 ) or the use of model-top damping ( Klemp et al. 2008 ), and model resolution also influence predictability. One common and widely used strategy to better understand predictability or sensitivities in the atmospheric system is to use perturbation experiments to assess the evolution of differences within model simulations. These

Open access
John G. W. Kelley, Joseph M. Russo, J. Ronald Eyton, and Toby N. Carlson

A technique called Model Output Enhancement (MOE) has been developed for the generation and display of mesoscale weather forecasts. The MOE technique derives mesoscale or high-resolution (order of 1 km) weather forecasts from synoptic-scale numerical weather-prediction models by modifying model output with geophysical and land-cover data. Mesoscale forecasts generated by the MOE technique are displayed as color-class maps overlaid on perspective plots of terrain. The MOE technique has been demonstrated in the generation of mesoscale maximum-temperature and minimum-temperature forecasts for case-study days of clear-sky conditions over the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The generated forecasts were evaluated using data from selected climatological stations.

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William H. Klein

The applied research program of the Techniques Development Laboratory in the field of precipitation prediction is summarized. Current projects are discussed which combine statistical, dynamical, and synoptic techniques and aim at improved and objective forecasts of precipitation probability and amount.

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Andrea K. Gerlak, Simon J. Mason, Meaghan Daly, Diana Liverman, Zack Guido, Marta Bruno Soares, Catherine Vaughan, Chris Knudson, Christina Greene, James Buizer, and Katharine Jacobs

practice. F ig . 2. An approach to evaluating the RCOFs. T able 1. Evaluative metrics of RCOFs. Whereas evaluating the quality of forecasts relies largely on quantitative measures and statistical techniques that are standardized and transferrable, assessing RCOF processes and the perceived usability of RCOF products will require a combination of quantitative and qualitative social science methods that are sensitive to highly variable regional contexts. Because the RCOFs have taken up different formats

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Lee Chapman and Simon J. Bell

built for dedicated applications and managed by professional meteorologists, there is potential for the approach to be truly transformative. USE CASES. Winter resilience on highways. Highway engineers consult Road Weather Information System (RWIS) observations and weather forecasts to make a daily decision as to whether the road network needs treatment. There have been significant developments in all components of RWIS over the last two decades. The range of techniques available to make observations

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Colin Ware, John G.W. Kelley, and David Pilar

The theory of human pattern perception is applied to the portrayal of winds, waves, and ocean currents, resulting in significant improvements in interpretation. While a great deal of effort has gone into building numerical weather and ocean prediction models during the past 50 years, less effort has gone into the visual representation of output from those forecast models and many of the techniques used are known to be ineffective. In particular, the representation of vector fields (winds

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A. C. P. Oude Nijhuis, L. P. Thobois, F. Barbaresco, S. De Haan, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, D. Kovalev, O. A. Krasnov, D. Vanhoenacker-Janvier, R. Wilson, and A. G. Yarovoy

dynamic distance separation concepts employ the energy dissipation rate (EDR), which is used as a measure for turbulence intensity and sometimes called eddy dissipation rate ( Chan 2011 ; Nastrom and Eaton 1997 ), as an input parameter for wake vortex lifetime estimation ( Singhal 2014 ; Holzäpfel 2006 ). Therefore, monitoring and forecasting wind and turbulence conditions in the final approach path can improve air traffic safety and efficiency. In current airport operations, local wind hazards are

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