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Stanley G. Benjamin, John M. Brown, Gilbert Brunet, Peter Lynch, Kazuo Saito, and Thomas W. Schlatter

greater use of observations in assimilation cycles when compared with the current 20%. Data from active space-based microwave radars like those used in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the Global Precipitation Measurement mission will be routinely assimilated, providing valuable information for the prediction of precipitation and moist processes. In situ surface observations of the ocean (pressure, wind, and sea surface temperature) come mainly from the drifting buoy network introduced in

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Pavlos Kollias, Eugene E. Clothiaux, Thomas P. Ackerman, Bruce A. Albrecht, Kevin B. Widener, Ken P. Moran, Edward P. Luke, Karen L. Johnson, Nitin Bharadwaj, James B. Mead, Mark A. Miller, Johannes Verlinde, Roger T. Marchand, and Gerald G. Mace

temperature change that result from differences in model clouds and their interactions with radiation. In their papers discussing the ARM Program, Stokes and Schwartz (1994) and later Ackerman and Stokes (2003) emphasized the importance of characterizing clouds throughout a vertical column in order to fully understand the radiation field associated with them. They made clear that coupling of high-fidelity observations of clouds and radiation were necessary to improving model parameterizations of them

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David A. Randall, Anthony D. Del Genio, Leo J. Donner, William D. Collins, and Stephen A. Klein

“from scratch,” as outlined above, existing AGCMs are updated routinely to incorporate new understanding and to address inadequacies of their formulations ( Jakob 2003 ). Key steps are to identify model deficiencies through comparison with observations, attribute these deficiencies to particular defects of the model’s formulation, and test new modeling concepts at the component level, in the same way that the engines, airframe, and other components of a new type of aircraft are tested individually

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

1. Introduction The history of stratospheric and mesospheric discoveries over the past ~100 years is a fascinating story of perplexing observations, followed by experimentation, theory, and iterative modeling of the unexplained phenomena to identify their physical and chemical origins. Advances in our understanding have been made possible by 1) improved and more detailed observations of both dynamical and chemical quantities (including in situ, ground-based remote sensing, and remote sensing

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

systems (MCSs) have a tendency to form just east of the Rocky Mountains in the afternoon or evening and propagate eastward and produce heavy rain over the Mississippi basin during nighttime. The keen observations of this experienced riverboat man presaged a century of research on the nature of convective storms over the central United States and elsewhere in the world. We have since learned that MCSs are not confined to the U.S. Midwest, but actually are important elements of the global circulation

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

) . Efforts at forecasting the weather might be said to begin with sailors and farmers whose safety and ability to make a living depended so strongly on the weather. Any interested observer of the weather in the midlatitudes could recognize the progression of weather systems and this might lead to various forms of weather lore (e.g., “Red skies in the morning, sailor take warning”). Weather lore can be considered the first primitive methods of weather forecasting based on simple observations. The science

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Kerry Emanuel

improving measurements from space ( Velden et al. 2006 ; Olander and Velden 2007 ). Observations of tropical cyclones from space made a leap forward in 1978 with the launch of Seasat , the first satellite to carry a microwave scatterometer designed to detect the amplitude and orientation of capillary waves on the ocean surface, from which the direction and magnitude of surface wind stress can be inferred. Surface winds inferred from sea surface scatterometry proved to be a boon to forecasters and

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Margaret A. LeMone, Wayne M. Angevine, Christopher S. Bretherton, Fei Chen, Jimy Dudhia, Evgeni Fedorovich, Kristina B. Katsaros, Donald H. Lenschow, Larry Mahrt, Edward G. Patton, Jielun Sun, Michael Tjernström, and Jeffrey Weil

observations were taken, both a wet-bulb instrument ( Telford and Warner 1962 , 1964 ) and microwave refractometer ( McGavin and Vetter 1963 ; Bean et al. 1972 ) made fast water vapor measurements and thus w ′ q ′ ¯ measurements possible. Examples of w ′ T ′ ¯ , w ′ q ′ ¯ , and w ′ T υ ′ ¯ profiles collected over the tropical Atlantic Ocean during GATE (1974) in Fig. 9-13 show the largest negative w ′ T ′ ¯ values corresponding to the largest upward w ′ q ′ ¯ at the top of the mixed layer

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

increase due to increases in CO 2 . He relied on surface radiometric observations ( Langley 1884 ), used or inferred a number of fundamental principles in shortwave and longwave radiation, pointed out the greenhouse effect of water vapor and CO 2 , and made simple assumptions concerning exchange of heat between surface and atmosphere to deduce the temperature change (see Ramanathan and Vogelmann 1997 ). In the same study, Arrhenius also discussed the solar absorption in the atmosphere. Arrhenius

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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

boundary currents have begun more recently with buoy observations ( Konda et al. 2010 ) revealing that during the cold-air outbreaks latent and sensible heat fluxes were large over the Kuroshio, while during warm monsoonal flow only the latent heat flux was enhanced. These results are consistent with bulk aerodynamic theory given the differing characteristics of continental polar and maritime tropical air masses. Simultaneous rawinsonde launches across the Kuroshio’s SST front ( Nishikawa et al. 2016

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