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Y. P. Zhou, W.-K. Tao, A. Y. Hou, W. S. Olson, C.-L. Shie, K.-M. Lau, M.-D. Chou, X. Lin, and M. Grecu

retrieval algorithms ( Simpson et al. 1996 ). It has also been used in the TRMM algorithms to provide a link between latent heating profiles and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR) observations, because latent heating cannot be directly measured. Comparing GCE simulations with TMI retrievals provides a consistent check of the model and retrievals under different environmental conditions. Second, combined cloud and precipitation measurements from independent instruments provide a

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Matthew D. Shupe, Sergey Y. Matrosov, and Taneil Uttal

comprehensive view of Arctic cloudiness in all seasons ( Intrieri et al. 2002 ) and a particularly wealthy set of mixed-phase cloud observations. Shupe et al. (2005) outlined an operational cloud property retrieval suite that combines cloud radar, lidar, dual-channel microwave radiometer, and radiosonde data to classify cloud types and retrieve cloud microphysical properties for the clouds observed at SHEBA. That study specifically focused on single-phase cloud retrievals and provided statistical results

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Kevin Wolf, André Ehrlich, Mario Mech, Robin J. Hogan, and Manfred Wendisch

.49712253204 Turner , D. , M. Caddedu , U. Löhnert , S. Crewell , and A. Vogelmann , 2009 : Modifications to the water vapor continuum in the microwave suggested by ground–based 150 GHz observations . IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 47 , 3326 – 3337 , . 10.1109/TGRS.2009.2022262 Voigt , C. , and Coauthors , 2017 : ML-CIRRUS—The airborne experiment on natural cirrus and contrail cirrus with the high-altitude long-range research aircraft

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A. V. Troitsky, A. M. Osharin, A. V. Korolev, and J. W. Strapp

polarization of downwelling thermal microwave radiation at a wavelength λ = 2.25 cm in the presence of liquid precipitation. Detailed studies conducted by Kutuza et al. (1998) and Zagorin and Kutuza (1998) suggested that the observed polarization is caused by the nonsphericity and preferential orientation of raindrops. Experimental observations of the upwelling microwave radiation from precipitating clouds have also been collected from spaceborne platforms (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989 ; Heymsfield

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B. H. Kahn, J. Teixeira, E. J. Fetzer, A. Gettelman, S. M. Hristova-Veleva, X. Huang, A. K. Kochanski, M. Köhler, S. K. Krueger, R. Wood, and M. Zhao

variance scaling from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) (hereafter simply AIRS) suite between ~150 and 1300 km. A rich variety of structure in the scaling exponents was revealed from these observations that were not previously reported from aircraft (e.g., Nastrom and Gage 1985 ) and satellite observational studies (e.g., Cahalan et al. 1994 ) owing to aircraft sampling limitations and ambiguities in interpreting raw satellite radiances ( KT09

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Lee S. Elson, Gloria L. Manney, Lucien Froidevaux, and Joe W. Waters

., 1990: Satellite observations of instability in the middle atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 1065-1074. , and L. Froidevaux, 1993: The use of Fourier transforms for asynoptic mapping: Applications to the Upper Atmosphere Re seamh Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 23 039-23 049.Fishbein. E. F., L. S. Elson, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, and R. W. Zurek, 1993: MLS observations of stratospheric waves in temperature and ozone during the 1992

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Sally A. McFarlane and K. Franklin Evans

by where y is the measurement vector, or set of remote sensing observations (microwave brightness temperatures and vertical profiles of radar reflectivity), each with an associated measurement error, and x is the state vector, or set of all cloud and atmospheric parameters that affect the measurement vector. In this equation, the quantity p pr ( x ), is known as the prior probability density function (pdf) of the state x . It represents our knowledge about the possible values of x before

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G. L. Manney, R. W. Zurek, L. Froidevaux, J. W. Waters, A. O'Neill, and R. Swinbank

@Meteorological Office, Bracknell, United Kingdom(Manuscript received 14 March 1994, in final form 14 February 1995)ABSTRACT Trajectory calculations are used to examine ozone transport in the polar winter stratosphere during periods ofthe Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) observations. The value of these calculations for determiningmass transport was demonstrated previously using UARS observations of long-lived tracers. In the middle stratosphere, the overall ozone behavior observed by the Microwave Limb

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Haiyan Jiang, Peter G. Black, Edward J. Zipser, Frank D. Marks Jr., and Eric W. Uhlhorn

. Powell , and J. Carswell , 2000 : A new era in hurricane reconnaissance: Real time measurement of surface wind structure and intensity via microwave remote sensing. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology , Ft. Lauderdale, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 199–200 . Bolen , S. M. , and V. Chandrasekar , 2000 : Quantitative cross validation of space-based and ground-based radar observations. J. Appl. Meteor. , 39 , 2071 – 2079 . Cecil , D. J. , and E. J. Zipser , 2002

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G.L. Manney, R.W. Zurek, W.A. Lahoz, R.S. Harwood, J.C. Gille, J.B. Kumer, J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, A. O'Neill, R. Swinbank, and J.W. Waters

: Strato spheric C10 and 03 from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Nature, 362, 597-602. , G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, and L. S. Eison, 1993b: MLS observations of lower stratospheric CIO and O~ in the 1992 Southern Hemisphere winter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1219 1222.Waugh, D. W., and Coauthors, 1994: Transport out of the lower stratospheric Arctic vortex by Rossby wave breaking. J. Geo phys. Res., 99, 1071-1088.

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