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Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Faisal Hossain, L. Ruby Leung, Nate McDowell, Matthew Rodell, Francisco J. Tapiador, F. Joe Turk, and Andrew Wood

from 47% to 62% over the conterminous United States. With integrated hydrology coupled to an atmosphere model in regional domains, the impacts of groundwater dynamics and lateral flow have been investigated in recent studies. In idealized simulations, terrain effects dominate the PBL development during the morning, but heterogeneity of soil moisture and water table can overcome the effects of terrain on PBL in the afternoon and influence the convective boundary layer strongly in wet

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Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

large-scale clouds in regional and global atmospheric and climate models, the use of schemes of similar complexity for convective clouds is relatively new. Since convective detrainment of cloud water and ice plays an important role in anvil cloud formation and evolution, parameterizing convective cloud microphysical processes opens the door for new lines of research in climate change, including aerosol effect on convection invigoration and aerosol indirect effect. The aerosol effects on convection

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Guoxiong Wu and Yimin Liu

blocks cold outbreaks from the north and confines the winter monsoon to eastern and southern Asia ( Chang et al. 2006 ). Yanai and Wu (2006) gave a thorough review of the past studies about the effects of the TP. The review starts from the research in the 1950s on the jet stream and the warm South Asian high, and the early progress of TP research. The review then goes over studies concerning the mechanical effects of the TP on large-scale motion, the winter cold surge, and the summer negative

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Robert M. Rauber, Bruce Carmichael, Jason C. Knievel, and James L. Cogan

>2.0.CO;2 O’Sullivan , T. M. , 2015 : Environmental security is homeland security: Climate disruption as the ultimate disaster risk multiplier . Risks Hazards Crisis Public Policy , 6 , 183 – 222 , https://doi.org/10.1002/rhc3.12084 . 10.1002/rhc3.12084 Pausata , F. S. R. , J. Lindvall , A. M. L. Ekman , and G. Svensson , 2016 : Climate effects of a hypothetical regional nuclear war: Sensitivity to emission duration and particle composition . Earths Future , 4 , 498 – 511

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) that have regional to global ramifications. On more regional scales, the ocean provides heat and water to fuel storms over the ocean, the study of which is essential to understanding severe weather like hurricanes and nor’easters. Yet the observations of the global ocean have been challenging because of its vast domain, posing great difficulties in sampling its ever-changing properties on all spatial and temporal scales. The beginning of the space age in the

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Kerry Emanuel

-entropy convective downdrafts prevent most tropical disturbances from becoming tropical storms. The 1950s and 1960s saw the rapid development of techniques for quantitative forecasting of tropical cyclone motion. Charney, Fjørtoft, and von Neumann ( Charney et al. 1950 ) had shown that the numerical integration of the barotropic vorticity equation was feasible using newly developed digital computers, but the severe limitations of the computers of that generation did not allow regional grid meshes with spacing of

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

change, and the effects of climate change relevant to the region; and 3) foster career goals in science for students in the region. It organized workshops for teachers in both countries, working with several regional partners in the South Pacific island nations and Australia. It also worked to develop curriculum units and a variety of teaching tools, including a traveling kiosk that could be used for interactive learning and viewing the data. In the mid-2000s, in response to a general lack of funding

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Robert G. Fovell, Yizhe Peggy Bu, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Wen-wen Tung, Yang Cao, Hung-Chi Kuo, Li-huan Hsu, and Hui Su

, but is over 31 times that for snow ( ϵ s ) and about 222 times the absorption coefficient applied for rainwater (for mass contents of 1 kg m −3 ). In the RRTM LW scheme, graupel is completely ignored. In the P3 study, ϵ i and ϵ s were varied to crudely illustrate the effect of shifting condensate mass among various species, which in some cases had a nontrivial impact on TC track. RRTMG has introduced new ways of handling hydrometeor effects, which produce qualitatively similar results but

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/5/054003 . 10.1088/1748-9326/11/5/054003 Lim , K.-S. S. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Investigation of aerosol indirect effects using a cumulus microphysics parameterization in a regional climate model . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 119 , 906 – 926 , https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020958 . 10.1002/2013JD020958 Lin , L. F. , A. M. Ebtehaj , R. L. Bras , A. N. Flores , and J. Wang , 2015 : Dynamical precipitation downscaling for hydrologic

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Zamin A. Kanji, Luis A. Ladino, Heike Wex, Yvonne Boose, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Martina Krämer

grid box, requiring an assessment of regional or total column averages to see an effect of INPs on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. For climate modeling purposes it is therefore not advantageous to represent molecular-level changes influencing IN, but rather effort should be applied into developing simpler parameterizations. Dynamics in global models tend to overshadow aerosol particle effects, which makes studying small-scale processes challenging as numerous sensitivity studies need

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