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Hayley V. Dosser and Luc Rainville

1. Introduction The standard picture of Arctic internal waves derives from observations made during the 1980s and 1990s [e.g., the Arctic Internal Waves Experiment (AIWEX) in spring of 1985 ( Levine et al. 1987 ; D’Asaro and Morehead 1991 ; Merrifield and Pinkel 1996 ) and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Experiment (SHEBA) in 1997 to 1998 ( Pinkel 2005 )], which found a quiescent Arctic Ocean with an internal wave field energy level an order of magnitude or more below that at lower

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I. R. Young, A. V. Babanin, and S. Zieger

1. Introduction Ocean swell is typically characterized as waves that have propagated away from their generation region and are no longer receiving active energy input from the local wind. As such, they can be represented by , where is the wind speed measured at a reference height of 10 m, and is the phase speed of the waves. A number of studies ( Barstow 1996 ; Young 1999 ; Chen et al. 2002 ; Gulev et al. 2003 ; Sterl and Caires 2005 ; Gulev and Grigorieva 2006 ; Semedo et al. 2011

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Pieter B. Smit and Tim T. Janssen

1. Introduction Pioneering work in the mid-twentieth century ( Munk and Traylor 1947 ; Barber and Ursell 1948 ; Munk et al. 1963 ; Snodgrass et al. 1966 ) explored the foundations of swell dynamics over large propagation distances in the open ocean, and explained observed narrowing (in frequency and directional space) of the wave spectrum by frequency dispersion and geometric spreading. The evolution of ocean waves over long distances is important for many physical processes, including wave

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C. A. Hegermiller, J. A. A. Antolinez, A. Rueda, P. Camus, J. Perez, L. H. Erikson, P. L. Barnard, and F. J. Mendez

1. Introduction At a given time, the wave state of the ocean surface is a composite of wind seas and swell. Wind seas are generated by and strongly coupled with local winds, whereas swell is generated remotely and might have propagated over large distances. Though multiple definitions exist, swell can be distinguished from wind seas when the wave phase speed exceeds the overlaying wind speed by 20% ( Semedo et al. 2011 ). Swells and seas are functions of both the intensity and frequency of

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Johannes Gemmrich and Chris Garrett

1. Introduction The height of ocean surface waves is largely a function of wind speed, duration, and fetch ( Holthuijsen 2007 ), and potential long-term trends in wave height might be a tool for monitoring climate change ( Young et al. 2011 ). Ambient currents on various time scales can change the amplitude, direction, and frequency of ocean surface waves ( Holthuijsen 2007 ). Regions with persistent strong currents, such as the Agulhas Current off the east coast of South Africa, are known as

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Laurent Grare, Luc Lenain, and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction The interactions between turbulent winds and ocean waves play essential roles in many important atmosphere–ocean phenomena. They drive the exchange of mass, momentum, and heat between the atmosphere and the ocean, which are key processes needed to validate and improve models of the atmosphere, the upper ocean, and the waves. To understand and parameterize the processes occurring at, above, and below the wavy sea surface, an explicit description of the airflow over surface waves

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Christie A. Hegermiller, John C. Warner, Maitane Olabarrieta, and Christopher R. Sherwood

has reemphasized the importance of wave–current interaction over large-scale currents over the global ocean, for example the Agulhas Current, the Leeuwin Current ( Wandres et al. 2017 ), the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC; Rapizo et al. 2018 ), and the Gulf Stream and related mesoscale eddies ( Ardhuin et al. 2017 ). Warner et al. (2017) invoked wave–current interaction over the Gulf Stream as generating maximum wave heights during Hurricane Sandy (2012). Ardhuin et al. (2017) found that

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Alexander V. Babanin and Brian K. Haus

the Kolmogorov interval associated with the presence of isotropic turbulence. Furthermore, magnitudes of the energy dissipation rates due to this turbulence in the particular case of 1.5-Hz deep-water waves were quantified as a function of the surface wave amplitude. The presence of such turbulence, previously not accounted for, can affect the physics of the wave energy dissipation, the subsurface boundary layer, and the ocean mixing in a significant way. The turbulence injected by breaking waves

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Sybren Drijfhout and Leo R. M. Maas

1. Introduction Near rough-bottom topography the turbulent mixing that is associated with the breaking of internal waves contributes about half of the mixing that is required to maintain the large-scale meridional overturning circulation in the ocean ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ). These internal waves are generated by flow over the topography; in the deep ocean, the most important source is the barotropic tide. Egbert and Ray (2001) examined the tidal dissipation by

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Jerome A. Smith

1. Introduction Although first described over 100 years ago (e.g., Pidduck 1912 ), there has been a recent rekindling of interest in oceanic acoustic–gravity surface waves, in particular in the context of tsunamis (e.g., Stiassnie 2010 ; Kadri and Stiassnie 2012 ; Hendin and Stiassnie 2013 ; Abdolali et al. 2015 ; Cecioni et al. 2015 ). It has also been suggested that they can contribute to deep water transport ( Kadri 2014 ). The original derivation is a bit hard to follow, so in the

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