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Robert W. Fett

that the plumes were perhaps due to geomorphic or anthropogenic activities,Parmenter-Holt (1987) argued convincingly that theplumes were naturally occurring, orographically induced events indicating lee-wave-cloud formation. Herexamples were over the island of Novaya Zemlya,which separates the Barents from the Kara Sea. Lester (1976) has noted that the most pronouncedexamples of wave clouds occur when a short-wavemidtropospheric disturbance approaches a region ofwave-cloud formation. Wave

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Joan D. Willey and Rudi H. Kiefer

., 82, 8771-8786. and M. E. Hawley, 1984: Acid precipitation: Natural versus anthropogenic components. Science, 226, 829-831.Gorham, E., F. B. Martin and J. T. Litzau, 1984: Acid rain: Ionic correlations in the Eastern United States. Science, 225, 407 409.Haagenson, P. L., A. L. Lazrus, Y.-H. Kuo and G. A. Caldwell, 1985: A relationship between acid precipitation and three-dimensional transport associated with synoptic-scale cyclones. J. Climate Appl. Meteor, 24, 967-976.Henderson

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Curtis H. Marshall, Roger A. Pielke Sr., Louis T. Steyaert, and Debra A. Willard

1. Introduction Since the arrival of colonial settlers, anthropogenic activities have transformed the landscape of the Florida peninsula. Much of the transformation within south and central Florida occurred during the twentieth century, when the pace of urbanization over coastal areas and agricultural production over the interior substantially increased. During this period, natural surface hydrologic features were altered and diverted for irrigation and domestic use, as well as for flood

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Rumen D. Bojkov

VOLUME 115Southern Oscillation (ENSO) geophysical events andto assist in evaluating the importance of such majorozone deviations in the detection of ozone trends. Following a description of the principal changes inthe ozone amount, a brief overview of some circulationpatterns of the 1983/85 period is provided as a' background for discussing the relative roles of the ENSO,QBO and volcanic effects.2. Observed ozone changes Data from over 40 stations with reliable long-termrecords were analyzed

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Sha Lu, Arnold Heemink, Hai Xiang Lin, Arjo Segers, and Guangliang Fu

estimates of the emissions of natural or anthropogenic pollutants. For instance, Chai et al. (2009) and Lamsal et al. (2011) estimated regional or global nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emission inventories with satellite nitrous oxide (NO 2 ) column observations. Besides the estimation of a single emission species, Huneeus et al. (2012) demonstrated the simultaneous estimate of global emissions of multiple gaseous and aerosol species including dust, sea salt, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and

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Gabriele Villarini, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and James A. Smith

frequencies. Bove et al. (1998) examined the effects of El Niño on U.S. landfalling hurricanes and found that the probability of two or more U.S. hurricane strikes increased from 28% during an El Niño year to 66% during a La Niña year. Elsner et al. (2001) used a Poisson regression model to examine the relation between U.S. landfalling hurricane data and ENSO and NAO [see also Elsner (2003) , Elsner et al. (2004) , and Elsner and Jagger (2006) for additional models of U.S. landfalling hurricane

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Joshua S. Soderholm, Hamish A. McGowan, Harald Richter, Kevin Walsh, Tony Wedd, and Tammy M. Weckwerth

urban, industrial, and mining environments and therefore are more influenced by anthropogenic local effects (e.g., paved surfaces and buildings) in contrast to the BoM sites. Santamouris (2015) proposes that the nonstandard EHP configuration is more suitable for observing the urban heat island due to the dominant thermal contribution of the localized environment. To assist the spatial interpretation of thermodynamic observations from the BoM, EHP, and CCIE networks (36 sites in total), these

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Andreas Wagner, Dominikus Heinzeller, Sven Wagner, Thomas Rummler, and Harald Kunstmann

parameterized flows—called the “gray zone for convection”—has to be taken into account ( Wyngaard 2004 ; Prein et al. 2015 ). Undesired side-effects in this gray zone may deteriorate simulation results with and without convective parameterizations ( Zhou et al. 2014 ). Arnault et al. (2016) and Klein et al. (2017) performed their simulations of the monsoon regime in West Africa with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model without convection parameterization for all grid spacings below 10 km

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Ji-Young Han, Song-You Hong, Kyo-Sun Sunny Lim, and Jongil Han

University Press, 390 pp . Grell , G. A. , 1993 : Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 121 , 764 – 787 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1993)121<0764:PEOAUB>2.0.CO;2 . Ham , S. , S.-Y. Hong , Y.-H. Byun , and J. Kim , 2009 : Effects of precipitation physics algorithms on a simulated climate in a general circulation model . J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. , 71 , 1924 – 1934 , doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.08.001 . Han , J. , and H.-L. Pan

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Christopher W. Landsea

responsible for more than 70% of all destruction caused by tropical cyclones in the United States,an understanding is needed of the physical mechanisms for these observed variations of intense hurricaneactivity.1. Introduction Climate change due to an increase of anthropogenic"greenhouse gases" may warm tropical sea surfacetemperatures, although the magnitude, timing, andspatial variations of such a warming are very uncertain(IPCC 1990). One hypothesis is that increased sea surface temperatures will

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