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Vivek K. Arora and George J. Boer

climatic conditions are unfavorable and the existing PFTs have died out, the invading PFTs require time to mature and become fully established at the newly available sites ( Shugart 1984 ). This time frame is of the order of 50–150 yr, not including the time required for the dispersion of seeds. Woodward and Lomas ( Woodward and Lomas 2004a ) illustrate the importance of competition in determining the current vegetation distribution by pointing out that in absence of competition the boundaries of

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A. J. Pitman and S. E. Perkins

assertion that a model that is able to simulate the PDF of a variable well for the twentieth century is likely to be able to simulate the future PDF of the same variable well. Clearly, we cannot prove this assertion because we cannot know the future climate. However, consider a model that has a high level of skill in simulating the current PDF of daily T MAX . This model must be able to simulate the drivers and associated feedbacks for the current climate. To simulate the observed PDF, the model must

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, Mathew Maltrud, Jose Hernandez, and David Erickson

life history concepts embodied in density-dependent mortality functions follow the philosophy outlined in Ryabchenko et al. ( Ryabchenko et al., 1997 ). Inorganic particles recycle only to a small extent within the euphotic zone. They have been ignored entirely in some of our runs with resetting at the lower boundary proving sufficient to sustain remineralization. Effects upon the dimethyl sulfide distribution are minimal. The ecodynamics are currently computed synchronously (or “online”) in step

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

this sink is critically important for understanding current and future carbon cycles from regional to global scales. Over the last decade, atmospheric inverse modeling approaches, mostly based on Bayesian optimization, have been widely applied to constrain terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes, covering various temporal scales and from state to regional ( Göckede et al. 2010a ; Lauvaux et al. 2012b ; Schuh et al. 2013 ) and continental to global scales (e.g., Rödenbeck et al. 2003 ; Bousquet et

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Christopher Small

agricultural regions are likely to remain under cultivation as large-scale mechanized cultivation replaces smaller-scale agricultural land use. The current spatial distribution of urban land use can also provide boundary conditions for future scenarios and projections of urban growth. Mapping present and future (projected) urban land-use distributions in geophysical parameter spaces could serve the dual purpose of 1) providing geophysical constraints for process models with physical parameters, and 2

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Taikan Oki and Y. C. Sud

ASCII datafile,, is attached. B.3. Vector data of basin boundaries of major rivers Information on river basin boundaries is extracted from the current version of TRIP in vector format (data9.tar). The datafile data9.tar is attached. Figure 1. Global illustration of the 1° mesh TRIP. The thickness of the line corresponds to the river order of streams, and only the streams of the order of 2 or higher are drawn. Figure 2. One-degree mesh TRIP of North America. River mouths are plotted

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Madhavi Jain, A. P. Dimri, and D. Niyogi

1. Introduction In India there were 53 urban agglomerations with over 1 million people in 2011 as compared to 35 in 2001 ( Census of India 2011 ). Out of these urban agglomerations, three megacities, namely, Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata, can be identified as having population greater than 10 million. Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, and Pune are the current incipient megacities (population between 5 and 10 million), which are likely to transition to being megacities because of the

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

precipitation during the night ( Nogués-Paegle and Berbery 2000 ). This lack of improvement was especially discouraging since regional models provide a means to investigate the influence of regional features on the atmospheric circulation by means of a better characterization of topography, coastal shape, land–sea ice distribution, contrasts in soil use, etc. While there are a number of research avenues that need to be explored to determine why current regional simulations are not able to substantially

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Christine Wiedinmyer, Xuexi Tie, Alex Guenther, Ron Neilson, and Claire Granier

potential future climate and chemistry scenarios to better understand the drivers and impacts and to design pollution control strategies. Currently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) does not include future projections of isoprene in their modeling scenarios. However, it is well recognized that these emissions are important and should be included in coupled climate and chemistry simulations ( Prather and Ehhalt 2001 ). We know that isoprene emissions are likely to change in future

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Jay Golden, W. C. Chuang, and W. L. Stefanov

was introduced by Kerschgens and Kraus ( Kerschgens and Kraus 1990 ) and refined by Taha ( Taha 1999 ) where the contribution of the canopy layer fluxes to an area at the bottom of the boundary layer is the weighted sum of the contribution of fluxes from individual surfaces. The need to increase the resolution of LULC information, both spatially and temporally, is vital to realize functionally reliable meteorological modeling ( Grossman-Clarke et al. 2005 ; Stefanov and Brazel 2007 ). Burley

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