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Anne K. Smith, Rolando R. Garcia, Andrew C. Moss, and Nicholas J. Mitchell

, 2577 – 2600 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<2577:STFASO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<2577:STFASO>2.0.CO;2 Salby , M. L. , 1982b : Sampling theory for asynoptic satellite observations. Part II: Fast Fourier synoptic mapping . J. Atmos. Sci. , 39 , 2601 – 2614 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<2601:STFASO>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<2601:STFASO>2.0.CO;2 Schwartz , M. J. , and Coauthors , 2008 : Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder temperature and geopotential

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D. L. Wu, W. G. Read, A. E. Dessler, S. C. Sherwood, and J. H. Jiang

Gettelman 2001 ). Measuring cloud ice at the tropopause altitudes has been challenging. Passive nadir-viewing microwave techniques do not have sufficient resolution to resolve vertical distributions of cloud ice near tropopause heights. These observations have been limited to column measurements such as cloud liquid water path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP; e.g., Evans et al. 1998 ; Liu and Curry 2000 ; Zhao and Weng 2002 ). On the other hand, satellite infrared (IR) and visible limb-scan techniques

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Hirohiko Masunaga

monitor hourly to subdaily scale variability critical of moist convective processes. This limitation is unavoidable when the analysis involves the LEO sensors that do not currently have any substitute instrument in the geostationary orbit (microwave and active sensors, for instance). Some past work has addressed this problem in a statistical space by projecting many LEO observations onto a composite time axis constructed against an independent infrared or rainfall dataset ( Kondo et al. 2006

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J. W. Waters, W. G. Read, L. Froidevaux, R. F. Jarnot, R. E. Cofield, D. A. Flower, G. K. Lau, H. M. Pickett, M. L. Santee, D. L. Wu, M. A. Boyles, J. R. Burke, R. R. Lay, M. S. Loo, N. J. Livesey, T. A. Lungu, G. L. Manney, L. L. Nakamura, V. S. Perun, B. P. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, P. H. Siegel, R. P. Thurstans, R. S. Harwood, H. C. Pumphrey, and M. J. Filipiak

1. Introduction Microwave limb sounding obtains remote measurements of atmospheric parameters by observations of millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength thermal emission as the instrument field of view (FOV) is scanned through the atmospheric limb from above. Development of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments began at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1970s and included instruments deployed on aircraft ( Waters et al. 1979 ; Waters et al. 1980 ) and balloons ( Waters et

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R. Justin Small, Shang-Ping Xie, Yuqing Wang, Steven K. Esbensen, and Dean Vickers

associated with the ITCZ and the Hadley cell is modified locally by the presence of the SST front, referred to here as the Equatorial Front. Observations from satellite show that the near-surface southeasterlies and southerlies are significantly accelerated (in a Lagrangian sense) as they cross the equatorial front ( Fig. 1a ; the wind speed changes 3 m s −1 between 1°S and 2°N at 95°W, equivalent to a divergence of 0.9 × 10 −5 s −1 and an approximate Lagrangian acceleration of around 0.6 × 10 −4 m s

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Stephen R. Guimond, Gerald M. Heymsfield, Paul D. Reasor, and Anthony C. Didlake Jr.

Typhoon Megi (2010) and found that convective bursts in the eyewall helped to intensify the TC warm core at upper levels by detraining high potential temperature air from the stratosphere. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the RI of Hurricane Karl (2010), which coincided with a convective burst episode, from a suite of remote sensing observations to understand more details of the dynamics occurring on the fast/small scales. The novelties of this study are in the use of a new airborne radar and a

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D. L. Wu, E. F. Fishbein, W. G. Read, and J. W. Waters

shortly after solstice. The excitation mechanisms of this transient wave have been discussedfor years, but no clear answer has yet been attained. In this paper, propagating characteristics of the 2-day waveare studied based on 8-mon temperature measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder onboard the UpperAtmosphere Research Satellite. The studies are focused on the wave events that happened in January 1993 andin July-August 1993. The observations suggest that winter planetary waves could be

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Frank J. Wentz and Roy W. Spencer

the vertically averaged rain rate. In this way, we explicitly handle the three rain cloud characteristics listed above. The algorithm is developed and tested using the observations taken by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I; Hollinger et al. 1987 ). The SSM/I is a scanning radiometer that operates at four frequencies: 19.35, 22.235, 37, and 85.5 GHz. It is flown by theDefense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) on operational polar orbiting platforms. The results herein are based on

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Ole Peters, J. David Neelin, and Stephen W. Nesbitt

1. Introduction Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) have been the object of much study because of their importance for severe weather and rainfall production ( Cotton and Anthes 1989 ; Houze 2004 ). One common tool in studying these systems has been to examine clusters of connected pixels for radar, microwave, or infrared indicators of cloud. Working definitions of MCSs are phrased in terms of such clusters—for example, an area of brightness temperature below 250 K of at least 2000 km 2

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Katrina S. Virts and John M. Wallace

Kelvin wave complex is flanked by subtropical warm anomalies, with a maximum amplitude of approximately 20°–30°, suggestive of a Rossby wave signature. Aspects of the structure and evolution of the MJO-related planetary-scale temperature perturbations in the upper troposphere and TTL have been previously documented based on temperature observations from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU; Hendon and Salby 1994 ; Bantzer and Wallace 1996 ), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS; Tian et al. 2006

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