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Y. C. Sud and W. E. Smith

OCTOBER 1985 Y.C. SUD AND W. E. SMITH 1015Influence of Local Land-Surface Processes on the Indian Monsoon: A Numerical Study Y. C. SUD AND W. E. SMITH*Laboratory for .,ltmospheres, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771(Manuscript received 30 October 1984, in final form 13 April 1985) Twelve July integrations were made with the GLAS (Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres) GCM

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Michael T. Kiefer, Warren E. Heilman, Shiyuan Zhong, Joseph J. Charney, Xindi Bian, Nicholas S. Skowronski, John L. Hom, Kenneth L. Clark, Matthew Patterson, and Michael R. Gallagher

particles from the fire. Whereas it is possible to simulate the dispersion of smoke using simplified dispersion parameterizations, use of a model such as ARPS that can simulate mean flow and resolve some scales of turbulent motion allows one to evaluate atmospheric processes that affect both smoke dispersion within a forest canopy and the possible transport of smoke through the canopy–atmosphere interface and into the planetary boundary layer. As a point of clarification, a canopy is defined within the

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Peter Christiaan Kalverla, Gert-Jan Duine, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, and Thierry Hedde

stratification but that additional challenges arise when considering SBLs with very strong stratification and SBLs over heterogeneous terrain. Holtslag et al. (2013) also stressed that correct atmosphere–land surface coupling is essential for a good representation of the diurnal cycle of the boundary layer. Previous WRF studies for complex terrain (e.g., Passner and Range 2007 ; Jiménez and Dudhia 2013 ; Gsella et al. 2014 ) found that near-surface winds are often overestimated and that model

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Aijun Xiu and Jonathan E. Pleim

Introduction Realistic simulation of surface fluxes of moisture and heat is critical for modeling of planetary boundary layer (PBL) development and surface level temperature and humidity in mesoscale meteorological models. Surface latent heat fluxes are largely controlled by soil moisture and evapotranspiration. Land surface heterogeneities, such as differences in soil texture, soil wetness, and vegetation, have significant effects on formation and distribution of shallow and deep cumulus

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Christopher J. Smith, Julia A. Crook, Rolf Crook, Lawrence S. Jackson, Scott M. Osprey, and Piers M. Forster

reverse or lessen the impact of anthropogenic climate change ( Boucher et al. 2013 ). The method of geoengineering considered in this paper is stratospheric sulfate injection (SSI), which is designed to reduce the incoming shortwave radiation by increasing Earth’s planetary albedo, mimicking the effects of reflective volcanic sulfate aerosols ( Budyko 1977 ; Crutzen 2006 ). The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo ejected 20 Tg SO 2 into the stratosphere ( Bluth et al. 1992 ), causing a globally averaged

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Michel Capderou and Robert Kandel

. Adv. Space Res., 2, 93-96.Potter, G. L., R. D. Cess, P. Minnis, E. F. Harrisson, and V. Ra manathan, 1988: Diurnal variability of the planetary albedo: An appraisal with satellite measurements and general circulation models. J. Climate, 1, 233-239.Raschke, E., T. H. Von der Haar, M. Pasternak, and W. R. Bandeen, 1973: The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system from Nimbus-3 radiation measurement. NASA TN D-7249, 73 pp.Rossow, W. B., L. C. Garder, P. J. Lu, and A. Walker, 1988

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Thomas T. Warner and Rong-Shyang Sheu

Introduction Desert environments, in spite of the popular perception of their uniformity, often contain a complex mosaic of surface properties associated with their soil, vegetation, and topographic elevation variability. These surface property contrasts and the proximity of a desert to coastlines can generate mesoscale circulations that interact with synoptic-scale forcing to produce considerable spatial and temporal variability in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure and its

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W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, H. Woolf, and H. E. Revercomb

al. 1998 ; He et al. 2001 ), and to derive cloud properties ( Collard et al. 1995 ; Smith et al. 1998 ; DeSlover et al. 1999 ) and surface/oceanic skin properties ( Smith et al. 1996 ; McKeown et al. 1995 ; Kearns et al. 2000 ; Minnett et al. 2001 ). This paper focuses on an ongoing program at SSEC for using ground-based interferometric atmospheric radiance measurements to calculate the temperature and water vapor structure within the lower troposphere (the first 3 km of the atmosphere) and

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John A. Augustine, Christopher R. Cornwall, Gary B. Hodges, Charles N. Long, Carlos I. Medina, and John J. DeLuisi

Introduction When considering the myriad of climate forcing parameters, the effects of aerosols on climate change have been shown to be commensurate in magnitude but opposite to that of increased carbon dioxide ( Hansen et al. 2000 ). Individually, however, different types of aerosols can have differing effects on temperature. Some, such as black carbon, absorb solar radiation and warm the atmosphere, whereas others, for example, volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere, primarily scatter solar

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Margaret A. LeMone, Bingcheng Wan, Michael Barlage, and Fei Chen

1. Introduction In June of 2002, over 550 km 2 of evergreen (ponderosa pine and Douglas fir) forest west of Colorado Springs, Colorado, was devastated by the “Hayman” fire ( Fig. 1 ). In August of 2010 as part of the Bio–Hydro–Atmosphere Interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H 2 O, and Nitrogen (BEACHON) project, the impacts of the vegetation and soil changes in the fire scar were assessed by comparing fair-weather meteorological observations at two sites that are 15 km apart: one within

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