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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

carry out. Having stated that, we have attempted to bound this chapter by adhering to a few criteria to make it manageable. Our overall rationale is to focus on the social sciences of weather and climate impact, that is, on the contributions of the social sciences toward understanding processes and responses at the places where weather and climate impacts affect critical aspects of society (vulnerability and adaptation, hazards, health effects, and security). Second, we focus on social science

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Ronald B. Smith

drawn by the excitement of flying over mountains in gliders or aircraft. Many enjoy the challenging physics and mathematics of the unsolved mountain airflow problems. Most important are the practical applications of mountain meteorology, such as predicting damaging winds; forest fires; clear air turbulence; air pollution; wind, solar, and hydropower; water resources; and patterns of regional and global climate. The influence of mountains on weather has been discussed for at least 2000 years. In

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

ocean, combined also with ideas about the effects of eddies ( Rhines and Young 1982 ), led to a renaissance in the theory. In the theories, the upper ocean is divided into a large region that is directly ventilated by the atmosphere and two or more special regions (the “shadow zone” and the unventilated “pool”). These theoretical ideas are well covered in the textbooks already noted and are not further discussed here except to mention that the theory has since been extended to connect it to the rest

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J. Bühl, S. Alexander, S. Crewell, A. Heymsfield, H. Kalesse, A. Khain, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, and M. Wendisch

. Observation of the complete life cycle of ice particles from the level of ice formation toward ground level, which is possible by such techniques, is important, for example, in order to discriminate between primary ice formation or particle generation triggered by cloud-seeding effects. Figure 10-5 shows an example of a fall streak tracked from the level of ice formation through a mixed-phase cloud system down to the ground where snowfall is detected. In this example, ice particles generated near the

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Matthew D. Shupe, Jennifer M. Comstock, David D. Turner, and Gerald G. Mace

provide an ample representation of regional processes. However, this may not be the case if there are nearby geographic features that can influence the cloud field. Recent improvements in scanning technologies and the operational robustness of scanning, cloud-sensing instruments have allowed ARM to integrate these capabilities into its observational suite (e.g., Mather and Voyles 2013 ). These new observations, in coordination with the long-term vertically pointing measurements, offer the ability to

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Robert A. Houze Jr.

et al. (1990) . 5. The 1960s–early 80s: The beginning of the satellite era Ground-based radar studies, such as those described above, are intrinsically regional in scope. The global significance of MCSs and their convective–stratiform structures has followed from developments in satellite meteorology, which allows global analysis of the frequency of occurrence of MCSs of various types. This opportunity arose with the launch of the first weather satellite in 1960 ( Anderson 2010 ). One of the

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Russ E. Davis, Lynne D. Talley, Dean Roemmich, W. Brechner Owens, Daniel L. Rudnick, John Toole, Robert Weller, Michael J. McPhaden, and John A. Barth

.7). With an overarching goal of observing the regional effects of climate variability, the CUGN has covered the 2009/10 El Niño ( Todd et al. 2011 ), the North Pacific marine heat wave of 2014/15 ( Zaba and Rudnick 2016 ), and the 2015/16 El Niño ( Rudnick et al. 2017 ). The CUGN produces the SoCal temperature index, the temperature at 50-m depth averaged over the inshore 200 km of line 90. It was strongly correlated with sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific before 2014, but this relation

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Eric D. Maloney and Chidong Zhang

maintenance. In addition to the mean state diagnosis, recent studies have employed the MSE budget to diagnose fundamental internal dynamics of the MJO. In both observations ( Haertel et al. 2008 ) and models ( Hannah and Maloney 2011 ), shallow heating in advance of an MJO convective event has been shown to contribute to the buildup of column MSE. This is a state of negative GMS in which the net effects of shallow convection and associated divergent circulations act to moisten the column. Shallow

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D. L. Sisterson, R. A. Peppler, T. S. Cress, P. J. Lamb, and D. D. Turner

surface characteristics play in cloud development? How do these roles vary with season and short-term climatic regime? What aspects of cloud development are controlled by the low-level jet, the moisture return flow from the Gulf of Mexico during winter and early spring, the development of mesoscale convective complexes, and frontal passages? What are the effects on radiative fluxes of regional northwest-to-southeast gradients of elevation, soil type, vegetation, temperature, and precipitation? How

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

development of the theory of mixed-phase environments has been achieved over the past 20 yr. Despite this progress, there are many gaps that still remain in the experimental and theoretical description of mixed-phase clouds and their effect on weather, the hydrological cycle, and regional and global climate. In the following sections, the main accomplishments of studies of mixed-phase clouds are summarized along with the formulation of questions and problems that still remain to be solved in future

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