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Zamin A. Kanji, Luis A. Ladino, Heike Wex, Yvonne Boose, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Martina Krämer

–Bergeron–Findeisen process ( Korolev 2007 ; Korolev and Field 2008 ). Most precipitation in clouds initiates via the ice phase ( Lau and Wu 2003 ; Lohmann and Feichter 2005 ) especially over land ( Mülmenstädt et al. 2015 ), which significantly influences the hydrological cycle and determines cloud lifetime ( Rogers and Yau 1989 ). In MPCs, forecasting supercooled liquid is crucial because of its hazard in aircraft icing ( Cober et al. 2001 ; Cober and Isaac 2012 ; Rasmussen et al. 2006 ; Siebesma et al. 2009 ). To

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J.-L. F. Li, D. E. Waliser, G. Stephens, and Seungwon Lee

and a lognormal particle-size distribution (PSD). An a priori PSD is specified based on its temperature dependencies obtained from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses. The cloud water contents for both liquid and ice phases are retrieved for all heights using separate assumptions. Then a composite profile is created by using the retrieved ice properties at temperatures colder than −20°C, the retrieved liquid water content at temperatures warmer than 0°C

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C. N. Long, J. H. Mather, and T. P. Ackerman

specific offers: namely, training and employment of local individuals to operate and maintain the sites, including launching of meteorological balloons and open sharing of data. Both were very important to the national governments and led to an acceptance of the ARM Program and permission to install the sites. The radiosonde data were critical because they fulfilled obligations that PNG and Nauru had to the World Meteorological Organization to provide soundings for forecast model initialization. At the

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

scientific foci and results for each of the AMF missions and a synopsis of some of the key issues encountered in the deployments. a. The Convective Orographic Precipitation Study experiment Germany has a serious problem with flash flooding in the Black Forest region. Models had failed to forecast major flash flooding events that had resulted in significant losses of life and property, and there was a basic lack of understanding of the organizing principles of the convection that was responsible. A

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Kazuyoshi Oouchi and Masaki Satoh

. The experiment included the sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from the weekly National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Optimum Interpolation SST. No nudging techniques were applied during the course of the time integration; therefore, the genesis of clouds and convection and their interactions with atmospheric disturbances were expressed as an internally driven spontaneous process in the global cloud-resolving model. The time integration period included the active period of the

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Isaac M. Held

atmosphere, for which … our techniques must resemble statistical mechanics. But we do not yet know enough about the “atoms” (the life histories of disturbances) nor are we concerned with “atoms” with a clear-cut individuality. (p. 52) Fully satisfying statistical theories for midlatitude eddy structures and fluxes remain aspirational. But scaling theories for the poleward eddy heat flux have been proposed, based on ideas for how eddy equilibration is controlled, which may or may not involve turbulent

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V. Ramaswamy, W. Collins, J. Haywood, J. Lean, N. Mahowald, G. Myhre, V. Naik, K. P. Shine, B. Soden, G. Stenchikov, and T. Storelvmo

of 20%. The necessity of climate model simulations to calculate tropospheric adjustments makes ERF distinct from either IRF (see section 2b ) or RF in several ways. IRF and RF can be quantified using more sophisticated radiative transfer schemes than are typically available in climate models and, for example, can be more easily applied to a wider range of greenhouse gases. In addition, the ERF technique is limited to forcing mechanisms that are of a sufficient size for the impact on TOA fluxes

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