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Kenneth Sassen, Arlen W. Huggins, Alexis B. Long, Jack B. Snider, and Rebecca J. Meitín

dual-channel microwave radiometer, a polarization lidar, and a Ka-bandDoppler radar. These data are supplemented by upwind, valley-based C-band Doppler radar observations, whichprovided a considerably larger-scale view of the storm. In general, storm properties above the barrier were either dominated by barrierqevel orographic clouds orpropagating mesoscale cloud systems. The orographic cloud component consisted of weakly (-3- to -10-C)supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds in the form of an

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David Atlas

bubbles and vapor sheaths of large radius of curvature with cross sections which cannot be obtained from the conventional far-zone radar theory.The cross sections of such surfaces approximate reported "angel" cross sections if the surface reflectioncoefficient and corresponding refractive index gradient is large but not inconceivable. The segments of thesesurfaces need only be approximately as large as the first Fresnel zone in order to behave essentially like theentire surface. In the microwave band

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Pablo O. Canziani, James R. Holton, Evan Fishbein, Lucien Froidevaux, and Joe W. Waters

two years of observations by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onthe Upper Atmosphere Research Sa;tellite (UARS). Thepaper may be viewed as both a contribution to the validation of the MLS data and a documentati.on ,of Kelvinwave activity during the first two solstices of the UARSmission. Previous limb measurements of the middle stratoSphere were carried out with LIMS, which sensed atmospheric emissions in the infrared region of the spectrum. As its name indicates, MLS senses

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Giulia Panegrossi, Stefano Dietrich, Frank S. Marzano, Alberto Mugnai, Eric A. Smith, Xuwu Xiang, Gregory J. Tripoli, Pao K. Wang, and J. P. V. Poiares Baptista

1. Introduction Physically based algorithms for precipitation profile retrieval from passive microwave satellite measurements use precipitating cloud–radiation databases that can be derived from cloud model simulations or from radar measurements, or from a combination of them ( Mugnai et al. 1993 ; Smith et al. 1994a ; Wilheit et al. 1994 ). Each database relates multifrequency brightness temperatures (TBs) to microphysical profiles that describe the space–time properties of a precipitating

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Stephen R. Guimond, Jun A. Zhang, Joseph W. Sapp, and Stephen J. Frasier

additional measurements from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft including tail Doppler radar, lower-fuselage radar, Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), and in situ data. The goal of the observations and analyses presented here is to address TC science challenges 1 and 2 described above. Details of the measurements and calculations are described in section 2 . An overview of Hurricane Rita (2005) during the storm’s concentric eyewall cycle including an explanation of prior work is described in section 3

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Sabrina Gentile, Rossella Ferretti, and Frank Silvio Marzano

influencing the growth of the Hector storm that have not been exhaustively analyzed are the microphysical processes. In this context, observations describing the horizontal and vertical distribution of the hydrometeors in the storm are very useful, such as the satellite platforms that provide information about the three-dimensional fields of hydrometeors by using microwave radar and radiometer. The TRMM mission—a joint space mission between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the

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Rei Ueyama, Edwin P. Gerber, John M. Wallace, and Dargan M. W. Frierson

-latitude planetary waves propagate equatorward and break at subtropical latitudes, as they appear to do so in observations of McIntyre and Palmer (1983) and in models of Dunkerton et al. (1981) and McLandress and Shepherd (2009) , they may contribute to the forcing of the time-mean upwelling via “downward control,” and thereby help to maintain the seasonally varying, climatological-mean BDC. Empirical studies of Iwasaki (1992) , Yulaeva et al. (1994) , Randel et al. (2002a , b ), Salby and Callaghan

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C. M. R. Platt, S. A. Young, P. J. Manson, G. R. Patterson, S. C. Marsden, R. T. Austin, and J. H. Churnside

and stability of the atmosphere containing cirrus clouds will similarly be affected ( Arking and Ziskin 1994 ). Prabhakara et al. (1991) have detected extensive sheets of thin cirrus covering tropical regions, particularly the TWP. The earliest lidar observations of tropical cirrus were probably those of Davis (1971) with an aircraft-mounted lidar. Uthe and Russell (1976) also observed some high-altitude cirrus from Kwajalein Atoll with ground-based lidar. Griffith et al. (1980) made some

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Christopher P. Woods, Mark T. Stoelinga, John D. Locatelli, and Peter V. Hobbs

prefrontal environment that is consistent with Fig. 19d . b. Cloud liquid water formation and removal In this study we have attempted to document the time evolution of CLW in an orographic precipitation zone throughout the passage of a synoptic-scale frontal system. We have examined both in situ observations of CLW from two research aircraft, as well as column-integrated measurements of liquid water obtained from a microwave radiometer at ground level. As discussed by Reynolds and Kuciauskas (1988

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A. B. Kostinski and A. R. Jameson

of volume counts separated by a fixed distance (e.g., coincidence counters such as the ones used in nuclear physics), but this involves mounting two probes and may be more difficult. The above steps can also be applied to the analysis of recorded particle interarrival times, as we will now demonstrate. 4. Observations of small-scale clustering and pair correlation functions During the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGACOARE) in 1992–93, the

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