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J-C. Calvet and Y. Viswanadham

satellite data is highly desirable since there is no routine measurement of the surface net radiation. Recently, a number of authors have investigatedtechniques to derive the surface radiation budget fromtop-of-the-atmosphere radiation budget components asdetermined from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). For example, Pinker andTarpley (1988) have conducted a study over Canadashowing that the daily averaged planetary net radiationis very well correlated with the daily average

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Andrew T. Young

invalidate theirmethod, which requires only 6 arcsec resolution. Turbulence also produces intensity scintillation or"twinkling." The theory of scintillations during occultation of a star by a planetary atmosphere has beendeveloped by Young (1976). Without going into theintricacies of the theory, the reader can readily see thatif ~ertical transmission through this region producesmoderately strong scintillations, then I~rizontal transmission must produce extremely strong scintillations

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Pierre-Yves Deschamps and Gérard Dedieu

top of the atmosphere, Ls, and its equivalent planetary albedo, %, tothe surface albedo, a, and to the atmospheric transmittances r(Oo) and r(0~) at solar and incidence zenithangles, 00 and 0v, the intrinsic atmospheric reflectance,aa, and the atmospheric albedo, as: ot = ~rLs/Es = [ot,~ + ar(Oo)r(O,,)/(1 - otots)], (1)Es being the solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere. They also modeled the downward global radiation at the surface, Eg, asTABLE I. Mean surface albedos over three

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George Gutman

/NESDIS/LSB-E/RAI2, Room 712, World Weather Building,Washington, DC 20233.c 1988 American Meteorological Societywould best represent the dear-sky planetary albedo. Itworks fairly well for an isotropic system, but fails, asis demonstrated in the present study, in the case of theearth-atmosphere system. The NOAA-9 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data counts (proportional to theobserved radiances) are presently converted into albedounits using a linear regression relationship (see e.g. Rao1987

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R. E. Newell and T. G. Dopplick

's atmosphere. Planetary Circulations Project, Rept. 24, Dept. of Meteorology, M. I. T.Gebhart, R., 1967: On the significance of the shortwave CO~ absorption in investigations concerning the CO~ theory of climatic change. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklim., B15, 52-61.Kondratyev, K. Y., 1965: Radiative Heat Exchange in the Atmo sphere. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 411 pp.Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and the ocean circulation I. The atmo spheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth's surface. Mon. Wea

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Peter Koepke

broadbandcoefficients.1. Introduction In order to derive surface albcdo from planetary albcdo, the latter must be corrected for atmospheric elfects. This can bc accomplished by applying radiativetransfer models. However, it is often sufficient to usethe simple linear relationship Pt = a + bps (1)between the clear-sky albedo at the top of the atmosphere, pt, and the surface albedo, ps, rather than tocarry out time-consuming radiative calculations. Coefficients a

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Keith P. Shine, David A. Robinson, Ann Henderson-Sellers, and George Kukla

enhances the brightness ratio. For example,for a cosine of the solar zenith angle of 0.3, thefl r l5-O003jNew snow°~-n~1-5-002i can II01030507Cosine of solar zenith angleFIG. 3. Planetary albedo versus the cosine of the solar zenithangle for a cloudless subarctic summer atmosphere over water andover a new snow surface. Calculations are for a clean atmosphere and for aerosols with refractive indices of 1.5-0.003 i and1.5-0.02i. The surface particle concentration is 200 cm3 anddecreases with height

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J. F. Schubert

vortices in the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1077-1091.Lettau, H. H., 1953 :' Exploring the Atmosphere's First Mile, Vols.1 and 2. Pergamon Press (see pp. 328-329).Often, G. R., and S. J. Kline, 1975: A proposed model of the bursting process in turbulent boundary layers. J. Fhdd. Mech., 70, part 2, 209-228.Pendergast, M. M., and T. V. Crawford, 1974: Actual standard deviations of vertical and horizontal wind directions com pared to estimates from other measurements. Preprints

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Norman Braslau and J. V. Dave

for R=0.8.results in an increase in net flux at the top of theatmosphere, but in a decrease at the surface. This is dueto a decrease in planetary albedo and skylight flux(Section 2c) from additional absorption of solar energyby the aerosols. For R=0, the amount of energy absorbed by the whole atmosphere increases by about11% and 36% as we change from Models C and D toModels C1 and D1, respectively. For R=0.8, the corresponding figures are 12% and 41%. However, this increase is not distributed

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Steven G. Ungar and Bruce Lusignan

. Bur. Studs., Washington, D. C.Hayden, C. M, 1971: On reference levels for determining height profiles from satellite-measured temperature profiles. NOAA Tech. Memo. NESS 32.Morrison, A. R., 1972: Orbit determination for a weather occul tation satellite. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.Pirraglia, J., and S. H. Gross, 1970: Latitudinal ~nd longitudinal variation of a planetary atmosphere and the occultation experiment. Planetary Space Sci., 18, 1769-1784.Tank, W. G., 1969: An on

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