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Roger Marchand

much larger datasets and better overall statistical measures. Two examples of satellite microphysical and optical property validation studies are provided by Mace et al. (2005) for high-altitude ice clouds and Dong et al. (2008) for low clouds. Mace et al. (2005) use a combination of matchup points (direct comparison of results from two dozen cirrus with coincident measurements) and broader regional statistics (comparing data gathered over a longer period and a larger area but not coincident

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Beat Schmid, Robert G. Ellingson, and Greg M. McFarquhar

Marshak et al. (1997 , 1999) . Marshak’s analyses focus on methods to remove the effects of horizontal fluxes in two-aircraft (or aircraft-ground) measurements of cloud absorption obtained by taking the difference between time-averaged net fluxes at two levels. The Marshak et al. (1997) simulated observations found that the optimal flight patterns depend on cloud structure and horizontal distance between the aircraft, with the ideal case being when both sets of radiometers see the same piece of

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

tracks result in regional precipitation and temperature anomalies in the area of the storm tracks and farther downstream. Examples are the effects of the Atlantic storm-track variability on Mediterranean precipitation (e.g., Zappa et al. 2015 ) or the changes in the Pacific storm track during strong El Niño events and associated precipitation anomalies over North America (e.g., Andrade and Sellers 1988 ; Chang et al. 2002 ) and South America (e.g., Grimm et al. 1998 ). Third, storm tracks are

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I. Gultepe, A. J. Heymsfield, P. R. Field, and D. Axisa

precipitation based on various model types that include cloud, numerical weather prediction (NWP), and climate models can include issues related to scale and downscaling issues, microphysical schemes, parameterizations, data assimilation, and boundary conditions. Thus, specific sections on methods used to measure snow, its prediction, and their inherent limitations and uncertainties, are presented. The current status of the prediction of snow precipitation at various scales and the effects of snow on

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Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Xiaoling Zhang, A. M. Alexander Chernokulsky, Eigo Tochimoto, Barry Hanstrum, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, David M. L. Sills, Bogdan Antonescu, and Brad Barrett

Brooks and Doswell (2002) , it is not possible to disentangle the effects of improvements in understanding of the atmosphere, communication of the threat, and societal changes, but the order of magnitude decrease in death rate could not have occurred in the absence of better scientific information. Fig . 18-1. Death rate per million population from tornadoes in United States, 1876–2017. Black dots are annual values; red is smoothed. [Updated and adapted from Brooks and Doswell (2002) .] There are

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

, including its discovery, the corrective actions taken to resolve it, and a report on its effects on data quality are typically included in these public reports and are database searchable on many criteria. The linked databases allow for the tracking of problem trends and help identify problematic instrument systems or facilities. An ARM Data Archive service has been implemented to filter ordered data based on data quality reports. A data user may decide upfront which types of problems warrant data

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T. J. Wallington, J. H. Seinfeld, and J. R. Barker

Scandinavian network to monitor surface water chemistry. On the basis of his measurements, Odin showed that acid rain was a large-scale regional phenomenon in much of Europe with well-defined source and sink regions, that precipitation and surface waters were becoming more acidic, and that there were marked seasonal trends in the deposition of major ions and acidity. Odin also hypothesized long-term ecological effects of acid rain, including decline of fish populations, leaching of toxic metals from soils

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Ismail Gultepe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martin Gallagher, Luisa Ickes, and Darrel Baumgardner

we currently know about its microphysical properties, based upon those measurements that exist ( section 4b ). Then there is a description of the instruments that are used for making in situ and remote sensing measurements (section 4c). The impact on the environment is explored with process models along with regional and global climate simulations. Some of these models are described in section 4d. The final section highlights the obstacles that continue to hinder our understanding of ice fog and

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Minghua Zhang, Richard C. J. Somerville, and Shaocheng Xie

of full three-dimensional GCM simulations, using different parameterizations, against global observations. Another is to carry out numerical weather prediction (NWP) experiments initialized with observations and to compare the effects of different parameterizations on short- and medium-range forecast skill. Both of these approaches are important. However, carrying out a carefully coordinated model parameterization intercomparison program with three-dimensional models, even when the same basic

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Isaac M. Held

winds have a meridional structure, so if they strengthen then barotropic horizontal shears will strengthen throughout the troposphere even if we hold temperature gradients and thermal winds fixed. In addition to direct effects of these shears on upper-level wave breaking, they can interfere with baroclinic eddy production through the mechanism described in the papers cited above. The result is negative feedback that can potentially help control the equilibration of eddy amplitudes. 8. The E–P flux

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