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Andrew L. Molthan and Brian A. Colle

during the Canadian CloudSat/Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) Validation Project (C3VP). Although precipitation rates were comparable to observations, comparisons for C- and W-band radar reflectivity suggested a bias toward higher reflectivities aloft ( Shi et al. 2010 ). Molthan et al. (2010) evaluated the synoptic-scale snowfall event examined by Shi et al. (2010) and determined that the GCE scheme might be improved upon further by incorporating

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Richard M. Forbes and Maike Ahlgrimm

mixed-phase Arctic cloud case study, the impact on low cloud decks over the Southern Hemisphere high-latitude ocean using CloudSat / Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite data, and the impact on near-surface temperatures over land in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. The conclusions are given in section 5 . 2. ECMWF model representation of supercooled liquid water cloud The cloud parameterization in the ECMWF global IFS is based on Tiedtke

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Thomas R. Parish, David A. Rahn, and Dave Leon

1. Introduction Winds in the summertime atmospheric marine boundary layer (MBL) off the California coast (see Fig. 1 for a map of key geographical features and station locations) develop as a result of the horizontal pressure field set up by the Pacific high situated several hundred kilometers to the west of the coast and the thermal low over the desert southwest. Subsidence above the Pacific high establishes a temperature inversion at the top of the well-mixed MBL. Observations have shown

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Nicholas T. Luchetti, Katja Friedrich, Christopher E. Rodell, and Julie K. Lundquist

sensor and relative humidity are available at 3, 26, and 88 m AGL. All M-4 tower instruments sample at 20 Hz averaged to 1-min output ( Clifton et al. 2013 ; Clifton 2014 ). To avoid tower-wake impacts ( Clifton 2014 ), we only consider winds between 25° and 100° and 175° and 300°; we removed one event at the NWTC. c. Description of remote sensing research instruments In addition to tower observations, both sites use a Radiometrics MWR-3000A microwave radiometer and Leosphere/NRG WindCube lidars. A

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

higher altitudes (e.g., Siskind 2014 ). Thereby, the wind field and the thermal structure of the middle atmosphere are modified (e.g., Lindzen 1981 ; Holton and Alexander 2000 ). Internal gravity waves have been measured and analyzed with a large variety of active and passive remote sensing techniques as well as with in situ observations. These observational tools include airborne and ground-based lidars (e.g., Alexander et al. 2011 ; Dörnbrack et al 2002 ; Rauthe et al. 2008 ; Williams et al

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Tammy M. Weckwerth, Hanne V. Murphey, Cyrille Flamant, Janine Goldstein, and Crystalyne R. Pettet

. Revercomb , 2003 : Near continuous profiling of temperature, moisture, and atmospheric stability using the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). J. Appl. Meteor. , 42 , 584 – 597 . Ferrare , R. A. , J. L. Schols , E. W. Eloranta , and R. Coulter , 1991 : Lidar observations of banded convection during BLX83. J. Appl. Meteor. , 30 , 312 – 326 . Fovell , R. G. , and P. S. Dailey , 2001 : Numerical simulation of the interaction between the sea-breeze front and

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Pierre Gauthier, Philippe Courtier, and Patrick Moll

JUNE 1993 GAUTHIER ET AL. 1803Assimilation of Simulated Wind Lidar Data with a Kalman FilterPIERRE GAUTHIER, * PHILIPPE COURTIER, AND PATRICK MOLL CNRM, Mdt~o-France, Paris, France (Manuscript received 12 May 1992, in final form 30 November 1992) ABSTRACT The object of this paper is to present some results

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Patrick Minnis, Joseph M. Alvarez, Kenneth Sassen, David F. Young, and Christian J. Grund

Company, Hampton, Virginia,- * Department of Meteorology. University of Utah. Salt Lake City. Utah,- Department of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (Manuscript received 24 March 1989, in final form 12 June 1990)ABSTRACT Cirrus cloud radiative and physical characteristics are determined using a combination of ground-based,aircraft, and satellite measurements taken as part of the FIRE Cirrus Intensive Field Observations (IFO) duringOctober and November 1986. Lidar

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Françoise Guichard, David B. Parsons, Jimy Dudhia, and James Bresch

simulations of 29 May 1998 Table 1. Summary of the data from the ARM SGP Central Facility used in this study Table 2. The 24 h-mean surface shortwave downward flux at the surface—time average from 0000 LT to 0000 LT next day Table 3. The 24-h-mean surface shortwave downward flux for the period 27 May–2 Jun 1998 (time average from 0000 to 0000 LT next day). Cloud cover information is for daytime only; observations based on the radar, lidar, and radiometer datasets * The National Center for Atmospheric

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Andrew J. Heymsfield, Karen M. Miller, and James D. Spinhirne

traverse appeared to be near the top of another, much denser cloud. The fourth traverse was inmoderately dense cloud, although the sun was visible.The fifth traverse initially was in dense cloud, althoughvariability in cloud density was noted, and the finaltraverse was at the cloud base. The cloud tended to bethicker on the western side of all traverses. These observations are consistent with the lidar data. The observations are also consistent with those of Smith et al.(1990), who found denser cloud

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