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A. B. Kostinski and A. R. Jameson

of volume counts separated by a fixed distance (e.g., coincidence counters such as the ones used in nuclear physics), but this involves mounting two probes and may be more difficult. The above steps can also be applied to the analysis of recorded particle interarrival times, as we will now demonstrate. 4. Observations of small-scale clustering and pair correlation functions During the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGACOARE) in 1992–93, the

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Charles McLandress, John F. Scinocca, Theodore G. Shepherd, M. Catherine Reader, and Gloria L. Manney

. Phys. , 9 , 4775 – 4795 , doi:10.5194/acp-9-4775-2009 . Manney , G. L. , and Coauthors , 2009b : Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations of dynamics and transport during the record-breaking 2009 Arctic stratospheric major warming . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36 , L12815 , doi:10.1029/2009GL038586 . McFarlane , N. A. , 1987 : The effect of orographically excited gravity wave drag on the circulation of the lower stratosphere and troposphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 1775 – 1800

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Gijs de Boer, Edwin W. Eloranta, and Matthew D. Shupe

large particles, which in mixed-phase clouds are typically ice crystals. These contrasting wavelengths complement each other nicely in measuring a mixed-phase environment. The AHSRL also provides a measurement of depolarization ratio. Spherical particles such as liquid droplets result in low depolarization ratios, whereas nonspherical particles such as ice crystals produce higher depolarization ratios. Data from an on-site microwave radiometer (MWR) and twice-daily radiosonde launches from Barrow

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Tomislava Vukicevic, Eric Uhlhorn, Paul Reasor, and Bradley Klotz

of TC intensity prediction, improving the methodology for evaluating the numerical model forecast for this purpose is highly desirable. In this study a new multiscale intensity metric (MSI) is developed that enables verification based on quantities that could be well represented by both the observations and models. Properties and utility of the new metric were evaluated using aircraft-based stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) surface wind speed observations and mesoscale numerical model

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Ajoy Kumar, Peter J. Minnett, Guillermo Podestá, and Robert H. Evans

quadratic SST (QSST): where the atmospheric moisture content can be estimated from the difference between channels 4 and 5 and added as a square to the linear correction ( McMillin 1975 ). Emery et al. (1994) used water vapor fields ( ω ) derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) in their water vapor SST (WVSST) algorithm: where W = W o /cos( θ ), W o is the total column atmospheric water vapor from the sea surface to the satellite, and θ is the satellite zenith angle. Despite

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Pavlos Kollias and Bruce Albrecht

clouds that are frequently observed over the eastern United States. During the first phase of this experiment (15 October–15 December 1994) a variety of cloud structures were observed. The ceilometer, wind profiler, and microwave radiometer were operated continuously during this observing period. The radar was operated during periods when either low-level stratus or cirrus clouds were present over the site. 3. Meteorological conditions and macroscopic cloud properties The observations used in this

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Kevin Knupp

1. Introduction This paper examines the formation and evolution of an atmospheric internal bore that was initiated by a strong gust front within a developing (unsteady) nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The complete evolutionary cycle, from a gust front to a bore to an eventual solitary wave pair, is examined with radar, profiler, and surface observations. The evolution of the NBL thermodynamic and wind profiles is also resolved with radar and atmospheric profiling measurements to relate

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Sally A. McFarlane and K. Franklin Evans

). In this paper, we examine whether the retrieved cloud properties are radiatively consistent by performing studies of flux closure at the site. The basic concept of flux closure is that retrieved cloud properties and atmospheric state information are input to a radiative transfer model and then the predicted fluxes from the model are compared to observations. A few closure studies have considered cloudy sky conditions, although they have been limited to overcast stratus cases only. Zender et al

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G. L. Manney, Y. J. Orsolini, H. C. Pumphrey, and A. E. Roche

potential vorticity in the winter stratosphere of January–February 1979. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 1199–1208. Elson, L. S., and L. Froidevaux, 1993: The use of Fourier transforms for asynoptic mapping: Early results from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 23 039–23 049. Fishbein, E. F., L. S. Elson. L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, and R. W. Zurek, 1993: MLS observations of stratospheric waves in temperature and ozone

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L. J. Gray, S. T. Rumbold, and K. P. Shine

of the secondary temperature maximum in the lower stratosphere. McCormack and Hood were the first to employ this approach using observed distributions of ozone, but they had a much shorter ozone record and the observations did not extend into the lower stratosphere. We also extend the study by sampling the modeled temperature responses as though they were measured by the Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU)/Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) instruments and propose an explanation for an apparent

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