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Yohai Kaspi and Glenn R. Flierl

. , 2004 : A local model for planetary atmospheres forced by small-scale convection. J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 1420 – 1433 . Stamp , A. P. , and T. E. Dowling , 1993 : Jupiter’s winds and Arnol’d’s second stability theorem: Slowly moving waves and neutral stability. J. Geophys. Res. , 98 , 18847 – 18855 . Steinsaltz , D. , 1987 : Instability of baroclinic waves with bottom slope. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 17 , 2343 – 2350 . Sun , Z-P. , G. Schubert , and G. A. Glatzmaier , 1993

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Adam P. Showman

some of the key energy production and loss processes occurring in the cloud layers of giant planets. Acknowledgments I thank Peter Gierasch for hosting me at Cornell during several summer visits, Tim Dowling for discussions about EPIC, B. Galperin and J. Theiss for discussions about fluid mechanics, and Tony Del Genio and two anonymous referees for helpful reviews. This research was supported by NSF Planetary Astronomy Grant AST-0206269 and NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF28G. REFERENCES

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Richard Davy

1. Introduction The planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth is a very important quantity within the climate and climate models. The PBL governs the turbulent exchange of heat, moisture, carbon, momentum, and aerosols between the surface and the atmosphere. The depth of the PBL is also a controlling factor in determining the near-surface concentration of pollutants ( Arya 1999 ; Akimoto 2003 ; Quan et al. 2014 ) and heat ( Oke 1976 , 1995 ; Davy and Esau 2016 ). It has been shown that the

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Yasuko Hio and Shigeo Yoden

1. Introduction This paper considers nonlinear dynamics of an idealized winter polar vortex in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratosphere with a barotropic model on a spherical domain. The SH polar vortex is stronger and less disturbed compared to that of the Northern Hemisphere. In other words, the zonal-mean zonal flow is stronger and planetary waves are weaker in the SH due to weaker forcing of the planetary waves in the troposphere. As a result, a major stratospheric sudden warming event had

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Germán Martínez, Francisco Valero, and Luis Vázquez

1. Introduction The planetary boundary layer (PBL) can be defined as that part of the atmosphere that is directly influenced by the presence of the planet surface and responds to surface forcings with a time scale of ∼1 hr or less. Belonging to the PBL, the surface layer is the region at the bottom of the PBL where turbulent fluxes and stress vary by less than 10% of their magnitude ( Stull 1988 ). The sharpest variations in meteorological magnitudes take place in this layer and, consequently

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Izumi Saito and Keiichi Ishioka

1. Introduction The zonally banded patterns and latitudinally alternating zonal jets are striking features of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. To explain the origins of these zonal structures, one series of studies following Busse (1983) considers convective motions extending over a deep planetary atmosphere, while another series following Williams (1978) considers quasi-two-dimensional motions within a shallow surface layer of a planetary atmosphere. In the latter “shallow layer

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Kunio M. Sayanagi, Raúl Morales-Juberías, and Andrew P. Ingersoll

rest of the report is organized as follows: section 2 presents the setup of our numerical experiments, section 3 discusses our numerical experiments and their results, and section 4 reviews the relevant physical oceanography literature on the meandering ocean currents on Earth and compares them to the observed state of the Ribbon and our modeling results. We present conclusions in section 5 . 2. Model setup a. Numerical model We use the Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate (EPIC) model

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Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi, Seiya Nishizawa, Shin-ichi Takehiro, Michio Yamada, Keiichi Ishioka, and Shigeo Yoden

-scale zonal jet. J. Fluid Mech. , 183 , 467 – 509 . Smith , K. S. , 2004 : A local model for planetary atmospheres forced by small-scale convection. J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 1420 – 1433 . Sukoriansky , S. , B. Galperin , and N. Dikovskaya , 2002 : Universal spectrum of two-dimensional turbulence on a rotating sphere and some basic features of atmospheric circulation on giant planets. Phys. Rev. Lett. , 89 . doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.89. 124501 . Takehiro , S. , and Y-Y. Hayashi

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Nikolaos A. Bakas, Navid C. Constantinou, and Petros J. Ioannou

1. Introduction Robust eddy-driven zonal jets are ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres ( Ingersoll 1990 ; Ingersoll et al. 2004 ; Vasavada and Showman 2005 ). Laboratory experiments, theoretical studies, and numerical simulations show that small-scale turbulence self-organizes into large-scale coherent structures, which are predominantly zonal and, furthermore, that the small-scale turbulence supports the jets against eddy mixing ( Starr 1968 ; Huang and Robinson 1998 ; Read et al. 2007

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James W. Hannigan, Michael T. Coffey, and Aaron Goldman

1. Introduction Since 1999, regular observations of the infrared (IR) absorption of the atmosphere have been made from a site in Thule, Greenland (76.5°N, 68.8°W, 225 m MSL), by using a solar-viewing Fourier transform interferometer in support of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), formerly the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC; Kurylo 1991 ; Kurylo and Zander 2000 ). The primary function of the NDACC is to provide directly comparable

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