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Joachim M. Joseph and Rivka Bursztyn

.K., August 1964.--, 1967: The radiative heat budget of the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Rept. A2, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Meteor., Planet Circ. Project, 99 pp. , and C. D. Walshaw, 1963: The effect of the Curtis-Godson approximation on the accuracy of radiative heating-rate cal culations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 89, 122-130. , and ---, 1966: The computation of infrared cooling rate in planetary atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 92, 67-91.Sasamori, T

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R. T. Pinker and J. D. Tarpley

AUGUST 1988 R.T. PINKER AND J. D. TARPLEY 957The Relationship between the Planetary and Surface Net Radiation: An Update R. T. PINKERDepartment of Meteorology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland J. D. TARPLEYNOAA/NESDIS, Washington, D.C.(Manuscript received 30 May 1987, in final form 14 January 1988)ABSTRACT In an earlier study, Pinker et al. have shown that the daily

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R. T. Pinker and J. A. Ewing

the atmosphere hasa zenith angle relationship similar to that for thesurface diffuse flux. For large zenith angles the planetary - albedo is higher than for small zenith angles,which causes the upward flux to depart from thecosine zenith angle relationship it would have werethe planetary albedo constant. Since the time of thesatellite observation is known only within an intervalof 15 min, there is some error in the estimated zenithangle for each satellite measurement.b. Sensitivity to precipitable

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Frederick G. Fernald, Benjamin M. Herman, and Robert J. Curran

.Coffeen, David L., 1965: Wavelength dependence of polarization,IV: Volcanic cinders and particles. Astron. J., 70, 403-413. Coulson, K. L., 1959: Characteristics of the radiation emerging from the top of a Rayleigh atmosphere---I..Planetary Space Sci., 1, 265-276.--, 1965: Effects of reflection properties of natural surfaces inaerial reconnaissance. Appl. Opt., $, 905-917.----, G. M. Bouricius and E. L. Gray, 1965: Optical reflection properties of natural surfaces. J. Geophys. Res., 70, 4601

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G. H. Clark, E. Charash, and E. O. K. Bendun

., J. M. Young and D. W. Beran, 1972: Atmospheric waves observed in the planetary boundary layer using art acoustic sounder and a microbarograph array. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 2, 371-380.Little, C. G., 1969: Acoustic methods for the remote probing o:[ the lower atmosphere. Pro-. IEEE, 57, 571-578.McAllister, L. G., 1968: Acoustic sounding of the lower tropo sphere. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 30, 1439-1444. , 1971: Wind velocity measurements in the lower atmo. sphere using acoustic sounding

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Frederick M. Luther

albedo. For a tropical atmosphere, the solarand longwave effects both tend to warm the aerosollayer, the solar effect being several times greater. These calculations show that the longwave effects ofaerosols cannot be neglected. Additional calculationsare needed to quantify the solar and longwave effectsof aerosols by season at other latitudes. REFERENCESAtwater, M. A., 1970: Planetary albedo change due to aerosols.Science, 170, 65-66.Braslau, N., and J. V. Dave, 1973: Effect of aerosols

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Wei-Chyung Wang and Gerald A. Domoto

radiative transfer problems in planetary atmospheres. Icarus, 9, 526-534. Griggs, M., 1968: Aircraft measurements of albedo and absorp~ tion of stratus clouds, and surface albedos. J. Appl. Meteor., 7, 1012-1017.IIanabook of Geophysics, 1961: New York, The Macmillan Co.Ilans(n, J. E., 1969: Radiative transfer by doubling very thinlayers. A strophys. J., 155, 565-573. Houghton, H. G., 1954: On the annual heat balance of the N'orthetn Hemisphere. J. Meteor., 11, 1-9.Irvine, W. M., 1968

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R. W. Bergstrom Jr. and R. Viskanta

, the concentrations at night were modified substantially bythe radiatively participating gaseous pollutants. Theseresults thus demonstrate the interaction of the radiative participation of the pollutants with their owndispersion in the atmosphere.dimensional transport model for gaining improvedunderstanding of the thermal structure and pollutantdispersion in the planetary boundary layer has beendemonstrated. Work is presently under way in developing a transient two-dimensional model for

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P. C. S. Devara, P. Ernest Raj, B. S. Murthy, G. Pandithurai, S. Sharma, and K. G. Vernekar

measurements. Proc. 17th Conf on Radar Meteorology, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 313-320.Wycoff, R. J., D. W. Beran, and F. F. Hall Jr., 1973: A comparison of the low level radiosonde and the acoustic echo sounder for moni toring atmospheric stability. J. Appl. Meteor., 12, 1196-1204.Wyngaard, J. C., 1975: Modelling the planetary boundary layer-ex tention to the stable case. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 9, 441-460.Zuev, V. E., 1982: Laser Beams in the Atmosphere. Plenum, 347 464.

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F. F. Hall Jr., J. G. Edinger, and W. D. Neff

prairieterrain. It is concluded that an array of acoustic echosounders can provide significant information on plumesize, shape and velocity, and on how the stable planetary boundary layer is modified by convection. From the earliest days of atmospheric acoustic echosounding, large returns from the turbulent, convectivedaytime atmosphere have been observed (Gihnan et al.,1946). When facsimile recorders capable of displayingthe backscattered intensity as a function of height andtime were added to sounders

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