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Erik van Sebille and Peter Jan van Leeuwen

located in the southern Atlantic Ocean. The legitimacy of using such a model can be disputed, as waves and currents are not well represented, thereby strongly underestimating the advective transport of energy. This energy transfer through waves can, however, be an important factor in baroclinic processes such as the MOC (e.g., Saenko et al. 2002 ). The way in which perturbations can radiate energy through a basin was investigated by Johnson and Marshall (2002a , b ). In their high

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Luc Lenain and Nick Pizzo

1. Introduction Deep-water surface gravity waves play a crucial role in the marine boundary layer, modulating the exchange of mass, momentum, heat, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere ( Melville 1996 ; Cavaleri et al. 2012 ). Irrotational surface waves have particle orbits that are not closed, but instead are slightly elliptic, leading to a drift in their direction of wave propagation, known as Stokes drift. This drift is usually inferred from the directional surface wave spectrum

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S. T. Cole, D. L. Rudnick, B. A. Hodges, and J. P. Martin

1. Introduction Vertical mixing in the deep ocean, which keeps the ocean stratified and helps to maintain global overturning circulation, is primarily accomplished by the dissipation of internal waves. Internal waves are forced by basin-scale winds and tides and dissipate energy to small-scale turbulence. Tidal and wind dissipation are estimated to be of roughly equal importance to maintaining open ocean stratification ( Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Wunsch and Ferrari 2004 ; Garrett and Kunze 2007

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Daniel Bourgault and Daniel E. Kelley

1. Introduction Diverse observational case studies suggest that the breaking of high-frequency interfacial solitary waves (ISWs) on sloping boundaries may be an important generator of vertical mixing in coastal waters (e.g., MacIntyre et al. 1999 ; Bourgault and Kelley 2003 ; Klymak and Moum 2003 ; Moum et al. 2003 ). Since mixing is important to many aspects of coastal ocean dynamics, these observations call for the development of a model capable of predicting ISW generation, propagation

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R. C. Musgrave

1. Introduction Coastal trapped waves form a distinct class of wave motions in the ocean, relying on the presence of a topographic waveguide for their propagation. Unlike freely propagating inertia–gravity waves, there are no lower frequency limits for coastal trapped waves, which makes them an important mechanism for the transfer of subinertial energy along coastlines. They are often wind driven (e.g., Clarke 1977 ), but at high latitudes can be tidally driven (e.g., Cartwright 1969 ), and

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Ke Huang, Weiqing Han, Dongxiao Wang, Weiqiang Wang, Qiang Xie, Ju Chen, and Gengxin Chen

responds to the global climate variability and change ( Song and Colberg 2011 ; Balmaseda et al. 2013a ). Wind-driven Kelvin and Rossby waves and Rossby waves reflected from the eastern ocean boundary are observed to be important in causing the semiannual cycle of the surface and subsurface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean ( Wyrtki 1973 ; Anderson and Carrington 1993 ; Schott et al. 1997 ; Reppin et al. 1999 ; Iskandar et al. 2009 ; Chen et al. 2015 ; Nagura and McPhaden 2016 ). In

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James C. McWilliams and Juan M. Restrepo

-layer horizontal currents whose convergence causes a vertical divergence (i.e., Ekman pumping), which drives the interior, geostrophically balanced, horizontal circulation in extratropical oceanic gyres. The vertical integral of the total horizontal circulation is the Sverdrup transport. In this simple theory the sea state is ignored. However, surface gravity waves are capable of generating a mean Lagrangian current called the Stokes drift ( Stokes 1847 ). The Stokes drift can affect the large-scale sea state

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Zhongxiang Zhao and Matthew H. Alford

superposition is nearly identical to that obtained from harmonic analysis. However, additional information is contained in the separated signals. The model to be solved for is a mode-1 wave propagating in a direction θ relative to the T/P track: where x is the along-track coordinate, t is time, ω 0 is the M 2 tidal frequency, and k 0 is the wavenumber of a mode-1 M 2 internal tide (determined from climatological ocean stratification profiles; see the appendix ). At each along-track location

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Masatoshi Miyamoto, Eitarou Oka, Daigo Yanagimoto, Shinzou Fujio, Maki Nagasawa, Genta Mizuta, Shiro Imawaki, Masao Kurogi, and Hiroyasu Hasumi

considered to be mainly baroclinic planetary Rossby waves, based on its westward phase speed ( Chelton and Schlax 1996 ) and nonlinear mesoscale eddies ( Chelton et al. 2011 ). Such surface mesoscale variability transports heat and dissolved materials in the global ocean, with amounts comparable to those by large-scale circulation (e.g., Roemmich and Gilson 2001 ; Dong et al. 2014 ; Zhang et al. 2014 ). On the other hand, deep mesoscale variability, which cannot be detected by satellite altimeter, has

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Julien Emile-Geay and Mark A. Cane

less effective than low-latitude winds. Since it is all too easy for the reader to get lost in the mathematical details, it may be worthwhile to give a brief informal account of the approach we will take. We wish to find the ocean’s response to a periodic wind forcing. As in CS81 , we write the solution as a sum of a forced part and a free part. Both are made up of forced or free long equatorial Kelvin waves and long Rossby waves, the only modes that exist in the interior of the basin at low

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