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Olivia Kellner and Dev Niyogi

commonly impacted discrete cells/supercells ( Smith et al. 2012 ). While national tornado climatologies show an increased frequency of tornadoes over Indiana, only two other climatologies for the state have been completed ( Agee 1970 ; Pryor and Kurzhal 1997 ). This temporal and spatial climatology serves to complement these past studies, adding an additional decade of tornado data to the most current climatology for the state of Indiana ( Pryor and Kurzhal 1997 ). The current sample size of annual

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Ellen Jasinski, Douglas Morton, Ruth DeFries, Yosio Shimabukuro, Liana Anderson, and Matthew Hansen

the spatial distribution of cultivated land. Previous studies have demonstrated the impact of road access on land-use change ( Stone et al. 1991 ; Wilkie et al. 2000 ; Laurance et al. 2002 ; Alves 2002 ). How much land in Mato Grosso will ultimately be converted to mechanized agriculture depends on future economic, political, biophysical, and climatic conditions. However, current assessment of the likelihood of conversion to mechanized agriculture for different landscapes in Mato Grosso can

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Daniel E. Comarazamy, Jorge E. González, Jeffrey C. Luvall, Douglas L. Rickman, and Pedro J. Mulero

). The version of RAMS used in this investigation, a modification of the standard v4.3 release, contains an upgraded cloud microphysics module described by Saleeby and Cotton ( Saleeby and Cotton 2004 ), an advancement of the original package available in the current model release ( Meyers et al. 1997 ). 2.1. Environmental setting Soundings from several locations across Puerto Rico, taken at various times during the ATLAS Mission, show a strong 5°–10°C temperature inversion anywhere

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Amanda Markert, Robert Griffin, Kevin Knupp, Andrew Molthan, and Tim Coleman

topography and vegetation, posing questions on how the lowest several hundred meters of the atmosphere, that is, the surface layer to lower boundary layer are influenced by horizontal gradients in the land surface roughness and how the tornadogenesis process may be affected. Figure 1. Tornado-track density for all EF0–EF5 tornadoes that occurred across counties intersecting the ARMOR coverage area from 1950 to 2014. This map reveals two areas with high frequencies of tornado occurrences for a given area

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Uma S. Bhatt, Donald A. Walker, Martha K. Raynolds, Josefino C. Comiso, Howard E. Epstein, Gensuo Jia, Rudiger Gens, Jorge E. Pinzon, Compton J. Tucker, Craig E. Tweedie, and Patrick J. Webber

dataset corrected discontinuities in the GIMMS NDVI north of 72°N and permitted the first comprehensive analysis of NDVI trends in the High Arctic. The new GIMMSg3 dataset uses the Sea-Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) for calibrating between sensors. The old GIMMS series used SPOT data, which only had coverage to 72°N and created an artificial boundary at that latitude. The AVHRR time series was compared with data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which samples

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David M. Mocko and Y. C. Sud

current work is motivated by one fundamental question: how would different evapotranspiration schemes, using the same land–hydrologic model, affect the surface fluxes and land hydrology when driven by the same and most up-to-date 1° × 1° resolution global data? Three of the four chosen methods use energy balance formulations. These consist of a version of the classic Penman ( Penman, 1948 ) method (as discussed in Pan, 1990 ), the Priestley–Taylor ( Priestley and Tayler, 1972 ) method, and the

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, and David Erickson

atmospheric source are relatively small, but strong local fluxes can elevate concentrations in the boundary layer ( Erickson and Taylor 1992 ; Springer-Young et al. 1996 ). Overall, the compound may be viewed as a primary tracer of photoreaction activity both below and above the sea surface. While large-scale sea–air transfer and ocean internal budgets have been computed and offered several times in the literature ( Bates et al. 1995 ; Zafiriou et al. 2003 ), dynamic simulation of marine CO geocycling

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

; Means 1954 ). Abundant low-level convergence, cyclonic shear, and moisture convergence to the north of the GPLLJ maximum dynamically force convective development above the planetary boundary layer at night. For these reasons, the diurnal maximum in warm-season rainfall occurs at night instead of during peak heating when instability is the greatest ( Bonner 1968 ; Helfand and Schubert 1995 ; Weaver and Nigam 2011 ). Variations in the GPLLJ are influenced by fluctuations in the gradient between the

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D. Rind and X. Liao

Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) has been monitoring atmospheric profiles of aerosols, ozone, water vapor, and NO 2 in the upper troposphere and stratosphere using a limb occultation technique between approximately 80°N and 80°S. The SAGE II mission provides measurements of profiles of atmospheric extinction (km -1 ) from the upper stratosphere to the cloud top or surface boundary layer in the case of clear skies. These extinction data are inverted

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Daniel M. Brown, Gerhard W. Reuter, and Thomas K. Flesch

there is any impact of the oil sands development on lightning, it cannot be visually distinguished from the background noise in the 12 years of lightning data in these maps. Further analysis was completed on other lightning properties (polarity, multiplicity, and first stroke peak current) and again no clear signal was found. Figure 6. (a) Summer cloud-to-ground lightning strike density (strikes per 10 km 2 ) in northeast Alberta from 1999 to 2010. (b) Cloud-to-ground lightning days. The main

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