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Baijun Tian, Duane E. Waliser, Eric J. Fetzer, Bjorn H. Lambrigtsen, Yuk L. Yung, and Bin Wang

it is most needed, is rather low (∼3–4 km). Thus, the vertical moist thermodynamic structure of the MJO requires continued examination based on improved observations. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) is a new satellite-based sounding system on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aqua mission, and is the most advanced temperature and humidity sounding system ever deployed ( Parkinson 2003 ). Through multispectral coverage in

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Jean Philippe Duvel, Rémy Roca, and Jérôme Vialard

2000 ). There is growing evidence from both model simulations and observations that air–sea interactions may play a large role in the generation and in the characteristics of the ISV of the convection. In situ observations revealed strong (∼2 K) SST modulation at intraseasonal time scales in relation with convective perturbations in the China Sea ( Kawamura 1988 ) and in the Bay of Bengal ( Sengupta and Ravichandran 2001 ). During the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean

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Lucien Froidevaux, Joe W. Waters, William G. Read, Lee S. Elson, Dennis A. Flower, and Robert F. Jarnot

) ABSTRACT Olobal ozone observations from the Microwave Limb S~under (MLS) aboarfi the Upper Atmosphere ResearchSatellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors reviewthe zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Wellknown features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longerterm changes are believed to be related to the quasi

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Ronald M. Errico, George Ohring, Fuzhong Weng, Peter Bauer, Brad Ferrier, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Joe Turk

satellites provide the bulk of observations, are now almost as accurate as those for the Northern Hemisphere. However, the progress in forecasting weather elements that are of particular public interest, such as clouds, quantitative precipitation, and precipitation type, has been less dramatic. To date, the assimilation of satellite measurements has focused on the clear atmosphere. But satellite observations in the visible, infrared, and microwave provide a great deal of information on clouds and

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Arthur Y. Hou and Sara Q. Zhang

1. Introduction Observations containing information on precipitation processes have become increasingly available from spaceborne microwave sensors in the past decade, and more is expected with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission now in formulation ( National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2006 ). These measurements include radar reflectivity from TRMM and GPM, brightness temperatures from microwave radiometers (e.g., TMI, SSM/I, AMSR-E, SSMIS, MADRAS, GMI, CMIS) and

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Federico Porcù, Leo Pio D’Adderio, Franco Prodi, and Clelia Caracciolo

of raindrop collision parameterizations using laboratory observations and modeling . J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 2983 – 2993 . Beard , K. , 1977 : Terminal velocity adjustment for cloud and precipitation drops aloft . J. Atmos. Sci. , 34 , 1293 – 1298 . Caracciolo , C. , F. Prodi , and R. Uijlenhoet , 2006 : Comparison between Pludix and impact/optical disdrometers during rainfall measurement campaigns . Atmos. Res. , 82 , 137 – 163 . Caracciolo , C. , F. Porcù , and F

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Fuzhong Weng and Norman C. Grody

authors express sincere thanks to the three anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. We also thank Dr. James Wang for providing the ER-2 and DC-8 radiometer and radar data. A special thanks to Ralph Ferraro for his review of the manuscript. REFERENCES Adler, R. F., R. A. Mack, N. Prasad, H.-Y. M. Yeh, and I. M. Hakkarinen, 1990: Aircraft microwave observations and simulations of deep convection from 18 to 183 GHz. Part I: Observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 7, 377

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G. Frederick Williams Jr.

., 1969: Fresh water whitecaps. J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 1026-1029.Murphy, Hugh, 1968: Percentage foam vs wind velocity. Internal Rept., University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla.Williams, G. F., Jr., 1969: Microwave radiometry of the ocean, and the possibility of marine wind velocity determination from satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res., 74, 4591-4594. Replf EDWARD C. MONAHANDept. of Meteorology and Oceanography, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor19 July 1970 The

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W. Nordberg, J. Conaway, Duncan B. Ross, and T. Wilheit

all nadir angles from 0- to 50- andat a wavelength of 1.55 cm, is considerably greaterfrom a rough water surface than from a smooth one.Stogryn (1967) had predicted that increases in microwave emission from rough water could be observedonly at nadir angles >30-. However, Stogryn's calculations were addressed primarily to the effect of the largescale wave geometry on the emission and did not, forexample, account for foam and spray. We have therefore conducted these observations at high wind

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Q. Han, R. Welch, J. Chou, W. Rossow, and A. White

combined satellite (GOES) observed cloud optical thicknesses and ground-based microwave observations of cloud liquid water path(LWP) to retrieve cloud droplet radii in stratocumulus.These results, acquired for 1-18 July 1987 over SanNicolas Island, have smaller spatial (8 km) and temc 1995 American Meteorological Society4184JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 52, No. 23poral (hourly) sampling intervals than those

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