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Randhir Singh, P. C. Joshi, and C. M. Kishtawal

observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite. AVHRR Pathfinder ( Brown et al. 1993 ) data consists of daily fields of gridded SST with a spatial resolution of 54 km 2 with data gaps over cloudy regions. We computed monthly averages of SST fields at 1° × 1° latitude–longitude resolution for the period 1988

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Michael S. Fischer, Robert F. Rogers, and Paul D. Reasor

; Dougherty et al. 2018 ). Motivated by the important operational and research challenges RI, ERCs, and SEF pose, this study examines the evolution of an RI event in Hurricane Irma (2017) that features two rapidly evolving ERC events. The environmental, vortex, and convective-scale evolutions related to the RI event are examined using flight-level and tail Doppler aircraft reconnaissance observations, passive microwave satellite data, and model analyses of the environment. Here, we will show that the two

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Haruna Okabe, Yukie Tomisaka, Katsuya Kotono, Yoshimi Kondo, and Hideyuki Kasuya

1. Introduction The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite carries a precipitation radar (PR; Iguchi et al. 2000 ), a Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS), the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI; Kummerow et al. 1998 , 2000 ), and a Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS; Christian et al. 1999 ) and therefore can perform satellite-based multisensor observations of precipitation. Multisensor observations from TRMM can evaluate microphysical features and internal structures in precipitating

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Godelieve Deblonde

1. Introduction Over the oceans, the number of conventional humidity observations is extremely limited. A source of humidity measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution is available from satellite observations. These observations however measure humidity indirectly. Three techniques currently exist to extract humidity from these observations. First, a retrieval technique can be used to derive humidity from satellite observations in the same form as conventional

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Daniel J. Cecil, Kevin R. Quinlan, and Douglas M. Mach

below 220 K (to avoid including the eye). (b) Minimum IR TB. (c) Best-track maximum sustained wind (solid) and minimum surface pressure (dashed), with the time of the ER-2 observations marked. Fig . 3. Sequence of 85-GHz horizontal channel imagery [89 GHz for Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E)] from the Navy Research Laboratory (NRL)—Monterey tropical cyclone Web page: (a) 1708 UTC 16 Jul TMI, (b) 1845 UTC 16 Jul AMSR-E, (c

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Hsiao-ming Hsu, Lie-Yauw Oey, Walter Johnson, Clive Dorman, and Richard Hodur

rugged terrain. Quality high-resolution wind fields are potentially important in small-scale ocean processes, and a companion paper ( Dong and Oey 2005 ) describes ocean dynamics driven by the COAMPS winds derived herein. Section 2 describes the COAMPS experiment and section 3 describes the results. Section 4 compares COAMPS with wind station observations, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data, and also the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis. Section 5

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Tadashi Tsuyuki

and Negri (1988) . Theindirect nature of the relationship between IR observations and precipitation has limited the success of the IR techniques. Satellite microwave data, especially from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on polar-orbiting satellites in the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), provide more direct information on precipitation. Although microwave estimates of precipitation are more accurate than IR estimates, they are available only a few times a day from

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Juan A. Crespo and Derek J. Posselt

nadir-pointing curtain observations may be obtained via the examination of the ice scattering signatures in higher-frequency AMSR-E microwave channels. Relative to clear air and cloudy regions containing primarily liquid cloud particles, ice scattering typically appears as a vertically polarized brightness temperature (TB89V) reduction due to volumetric scattering of microwave radiation by precipitation-sized frozen hydrometeors (e.g., Spencer et al. 1989 ; Petty 1994 ; Weng and Grody 2000

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Kenichi Kusunoki, Masataka Murakami, Narihiro Orikasa, Mizuho Hoshimoto, Yoshinobu Tanaka, Yoshinori Yamada, Hakaru Mizuno, Kyosuke Hamazu, and Hideyuki Watanabe

indicates that there is a positive correlation between the two variables up the slope. Locally enhanced updrafts may exist where the airflows ascends over the abrupt terrain rises (∼3 km horizontal scale), and such updrafts may generate supercooled cloud droplets. It is noteworthy that such small-scale terrain-induced SLW detectable by a microwave radiometer was also reported by Huggins (1995) , see his Fig. 9) who, based on DRI MMR observations, documented the spatial characteristics of the cloud

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Tong Zhu, Da-Lin Zhang, and Fuzhong Weng

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones develop over the vast ocean, where few upper-air observations are available. This lack of observation is one of the major factors affecting the accurate prediction of tropical storms. In particular, in order to predict reasonably the track and intensity of hurricanes using numerical models, one has to bogus into the model initial conditions a vortex at the right location with realistic intensity since in most cases operational analyses contain too weak a vortex

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