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R. G. Von Gogh and P. Zib

Cruces, 66-72.Emmanuel, C. B., 1973: Richardson number profiles through shear instability wave regions in the lower planetary bound ary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 5, 19-27.--, B. R. Bean, L. G. McAllister, and J. R. Pollard, 1972: Observations of Helmholtz waves in the lower atmosphere with an acoustic sounder. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 886-892.G~roch, A. K., 1976: Comparison of radiosonde and acoustic sounder measurements of atmospheric thermal strata. J. Appl. Meteor., 15, 520-521.Hall, F

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Norman Braslau and J. V. Dave

total incident fluxtransmitted to the ground, reflected back to the space(planetary albedo), and absorbed in the atmosphere.Variations of these quantities as a function of theLambert ground reflectivity of the surface underlyingJc~'E1973 NORMAN BRASLAU AND J. V. DAVE 611TABLE I. Percent of the incident solar energy directlytransmitted by the various atmospheric models. Solar zenith

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S. P. S. Arya

SEPTEMBER 1985NOTES1001The Schematics of Balance of Forces in the Planetary Boundary LayerS. P. S. ARYADepartment of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 2769513 December 1984ABSTRACTIt is pointed out that in a rotating frame of reference, the friction force on a fluid element may not be paralleland opposite to the velocity vector, as commonly depicted in textbook schematics of the force balance in thefriction layer. A better schematic

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Fu-Lung Chang, Zhanqing Li, and Alexander P. Trishchenko

. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 11 785–11 798 . Gutman, G., 1994: Normalization of multi-annual global AVHRR reflectance data over land surfaces to common sun-target-sensor geometry. Adv. Space Res., 14, 121–124 . Hansen, J. E., 1971: Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. Part II: Sunlight reflected by terrestrial water clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 1400–1426 . Hartmann, D. L., V. Ramanathan, A. Berroir, and G. E. Hunt, 1986: Earth radiation budget data and climate

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William D. Sellers

not be taken lightly by meteorologists, especially those interested in weather modification. The association of an ice age with a decrease of thesolar constant by only a few per cent (or with an increase of the planetary albedo by 5-10%) does not seemat all unreasonable. The periodic advances of the icesheets during the past million years and, in fact, eventhe presence of the Greenland and antarctic ice capstoday, seem to me to be indicative of cl/matic instabilitycaused mainly either by small

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E. M. Agee, D. E. Brown, T. S. Chen, and K. E. Dowell

the surface boundary layer by taking intoaccount the physical requirement that the K distribution and its first derivative be continuous with height.He further concludes that Z~r is located about one-thirdof the distance from the top of the surface boundarylayer to the top of the PBL at Z~.. According to500TO 2000 M,50 TO I00 M FREE ATMOSPHERE [ EKMAN LAYER I PLANETARY BO. iNDARY LAYER - 1 SURFACE BOUNDARY LAYER

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Douglas Roewe and Kuo-Nan Liou

by atmospheric water vapor in the 8-12 #m window. Appl. Opt., 15, 2085-2090.Rodgers, C. D., and Walshaw, C. D., 1966: The computation of infrared cooling rate in planetary atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Sot., 92, 67-92.Roewe, D. A, 1977: Influence of cirrus clouds on the infrared cooling rate in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Meteorology, University of Utah, 113 pp.Schaaf, J. W. and D. Williams, 1973: Optical constants of ice in the infrared. J. Opt

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R. Viskanta and R. A. Daniel

,939-944.Roach, W. T., 1961: Some aircraft observations of fluxes of solar radiation in the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 87, 346-363.Sasmori, T., 1970: A numerical study of atmospheric and soil boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 1122-1137.Shir, C. C., and R. D. Bornstein, 1977: Eddy exchange coeffi cients in numerical models of the planetary boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 11, 171-185.Sisterson, D. L., and R. A. Dirks, 1977: The urban moisture climate. Proc. Conf. Metropolitan

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R. E. Newell, G. F. Herman, G. J. Boer, and T. G. Dopplick

Study of Critical Environmental Problems in July 1970. The work commenced while CaptainDopplick was assigned to M.I.T. by the Air ForceInstitute of Technology. REFERENCESDopplick, T. G., 1970: Global radiative heating of the earth's atmosphere. Rept. No. 24, Planetary Circulations Project, Dept. of Meteorology, M.I.T.Gebhart, R., 1967: On the significance of the shortwave COs ab sorption in investigations concerning the CO2 theory of climatic change. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklim

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Douglas V. Hoyt

Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Raylelgh Scattering. University of California Press, Berkeley, 548 pp.436 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME16DeLuisi, J. J., 1967: The effect of haze upon Umkehr measure ments. Sci. Rep. No. 3, Dept. of Meteorology, Florida State Uniw.~rsity, 564 pp.Dintzis, F. R., and R. S. Stein, 1963

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