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James C. McWilliams and Juan M. Restrepo

-layer horizontal currents whose convergence causes a vertical divergence (i.e., Ekman pumping), which drives the interior, geostrophically balanced, horizontal circulation in extratropical oceanic gyres. The vertical integral of the total horizontal circulation is the Sverdrup transport. In this simple theory the sea state is ignored. However, surface gravity waves are capable of generating a mean Lagrangian current called the Stokes drift ( Stokes 1847 ). The Stokes drift can affect the large-scale sea state

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P. B. Smit and T. T. Janssen

1. Introduction As ocean waves propagate from deep water, onto the continental shelves, and toward coastal areas, their propagation is affected increasingly by interaction with bathymetry and currents, the transition from dominant resonant four-wave interactions to near-resonant three-wave (or triad) interactions and the transformation of organized wave motion into turbulence, heat, and sound in the breaking process close to shore. The ability to model these processes and their effects on wave

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Luc Lenain and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction Over the last several decades, there has been growing recognition from both oceanographic and atmospheric sciences communities that surface waves play a crucial role in the processes by which the ocean and atmosphere interact. Until recently, most of the observational literature on surface waves was driven by studies based on time series of wave measurements at a point (or at a relatively slowly moving mooring) combined with directional information from the dynamics of the

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Peter Sutherland and W. Kendall Melville

1. Introduction When wind flows over the open sea, it creates surface waves. Energy, momentum, and mass flux between the atmosphere and ocean are all modulated by this wave field ( Melville 1996 ). Although some of the energy and momentum flux input by the wind propagates away as swell, the majority is injected into the water column locally. This results in a turbulent marine boundary layer near the ocean surface, where energy is dissipated by turbulence. This work uses a combination of

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M. W. Roth, M. G. Briscoe, and C. H. McComas III

1234 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 11Internal Waves in the Upper Ocean M. W. ROTH$ohn Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laborotory, Laurel, MD 20810 M. G. BRtSCOE AND C. H. MCCOMAS lipWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02545(Manuscript received I July 1980, in final form 22 May 1981)ABSTRACT Previous work has shown that the deep-ocean internal-wave field has little

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Andrey Pleskachevsky, Mikhail Dobrynin, Alexander V. Babanin, Heinz Günther, and Emil Stanev

not present), and the second series of tests is based on satellite observations in the ocean. Conclusions are summarized and discussed in section 5 . a. Background Numerical simulation of different processes in the ocean, such as transport of different ingredients, chemical and biological exchange, morphodynamics, suspended matter transport, etc., is based on knowledge of wave climate and circulation current dynamics. Developments in recent years allow for application of such modern

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Daniel Bourgault, David C. Janes, and Peter S. Galbraith

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We thank Kevin Lamb for sharing his code and fruitful discussions as well as James Caveen for code development. Thanks also to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. REFERENCES Bélanger , C. , 2003 : Observation and modelling of a renewal event in the Saguenay Fjord. Ph.D. thesis, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 235 pp . Boegman , L. , G. N. Ivey , and J. Imberger , 2005a : The degeneration of internal waves in lakes with sloping topography

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Ian R. Young, Emmanuel Fontaine, Qingxiang Liu, and Alexander V. Babanin

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean is often defined as the region south of 60°S. However, from the point of view of wave climate, this is not a useful definition. Rather, it is more useful to define the Southern Ocean as the region south of the main landmasses of Africa, Australia, and South America and north of the Antarctic ice edge. That is, the region between latitudes of approximately 40° and 60°S. This is an area of ocean of approximately 50 × 10 6 km 2 . As seen in Fig. 11 , the extent

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Michael L. Banner, Johannes R. Gemmrich, and David M. Farmer

) , Melville (1996) , and Duncan (2001) provide comprehensive overviews of the importance and scientific status of the major aspects of wave breaking and its importance for upper ocean dynamics and offshore engineering. Recent efforts to provide a more complete understanding of breaking onset have been guided by numerical model studies of nonlinear wave groups (e.g., Dold and Peregrine 1986 ; Tulin and Li 1992 ; Banner and Tian 1998 ; Song and Banner 2002 ; Banner and Song 2002 ; among others

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

instability leads to a forward energy cascade. These submesoscale flows are typically restricted to the mixed layer of the ocean because strong forcing from wind and strain by mesoscale features creates fast flows over short length scales [where Ro ~ O (1)]. Convection and wind also make the near-surface stratification very weak (Ri ≲ 1). Since submesoscale flows occur at the upper boundary layer, they coexist with wind and wave forcing. Despite having a partially geostrophically balanced state, these

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