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Nancy H. F. French, Donald McKenzie, Tyler Erickson, Benjamin Koziol, Michael Billmire, K. Arthur Endsley, Naomi K. Yager Scheinerman, Liza Jenkins, Mary Ellen Miller, Roger Ottmar, and Susan Prichard

-derived carbon and trace gas emissions. WFEIS is both a modeling method and a web-based system to employ the method that can be used to calculate past fire emissions for user-designated time and space domains. WFEIS provides a means to map and quantify emissions across multiple fires revealing within-burn variability based on fuels and fire timing. Currently, WFEIS is operational for the contiguous United States (CONUS) and Alaska (AK) for areas of forest and rangeland and is not able to account for burning

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Peter K. Snyder

Henderson-Sellers ( Dickinson and Henderson-Sellers 1988 ) examined how Amazonian deforestation could affect the local and regional climate when tropical forests were replaced by grasslands. Using a biophysical land surface model coupled to an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), they quantified how deforestation changes the aerodynamic roughness and reduces the turbulent mixing of water, energy, and momentum between the surface and the planetary boundary layer. Dickinson and Henderson

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Laure M. Montandon, Souleymane Fall, Roger A. Pielke Sr., and Dev Niyogi

et al. 2007 ; Fall et al. 2010a ). There are also issues with the quality of the temperature data because of the local exposure of the surface temperature observing sites (i.e., Davey and Pielke 2005 ; Pielke et al. 2007a ; Pielke et al. 2007b ; Menne et al. 2010 ; Fall et al. 2010b, manuscript submitted to J. Geophys. Res. ), but we do not consider this subject in this paper. The goal of this paper is to assess the representation of the current GHCN monthly temperature dataset [version

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

noted that LULCC has the potential to influence atmospheric circulation patterns over Australia as well as the boundary layer temperature. In their simulations, the influence of LULCC on temperature propagates upward beyond the boundary layer and reached a height of approximately 0.7-sigma level ( Narisma and Pitman 2003 ). A recent study using a fully coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM) showed that LULCC could significantly affect atmospheric circulation at 850 hPa in Asia during the

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Rick Lader, John E. Walsh, Uma S. Bhatt, and Peter A. Bieniek

-century snow cover in this southern region is the main reason for this difference. Much of the solar energy in the spring currently goes into melting snow and is projected to continue to do so to a lesser extent in northern regions, but not in the south. The late-century (2071–2100) CCSM4 shows an earlier date of LF, compared to the historical period, ranging from an advance of 19 (Fairbanks) to 31 (Juneau) days. For FF, the geographical range of values is larger: 23 (Juneau) to 40 (Aleutians) days later

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Heidi E. Brown, Alex Young, Joceline Lega, Theodore G. Andreadis, Jessica Schurich, and Andrew Comrie

were selected where daily temperature and precipitation data were available for at least 95% of each year for the period 1970–2000 and include some diversity with respect to the range of each mosquito’s distribution [based on Darsie and Ward (2005) ; recreated as Figure 1 ]. This high threshold on the availability of meteorological data for urban areas within the current ranges of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis yielded four (Allentown, Pennsylvania; Groton, Connecticut; Fort Collins, Colorado

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Diandong Ren, Lance M. Leslie, and David Karoly

variables and the coordinates. Applying the constitutive relationship (see below) reduces the unknowns to the three velocity components ( u , υ , and w ). Note that at a given time, in addition to satisfying the vertical motion equation, the vertical resistive stress R zz is obtained from boundary conditions ( Jaeger 1969 ). 2.1. A new constitutive relationship for granular flow Soil at near saturation acts like elasticoplastic material ( Keen 1931 ; Baver 1940 ). Based on a study of steady flows

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Mark A. Snyder and Lisa C. Sloan

; Kim et al. 2002 ; Knowles and Cayan 2002 ; Leung et al. 2004 ; Snyder et al. 2002 ). Snyder et al. ( Snyder et al. 2002 ) used boundary conditions derived from a global climate model (GCM) with monthly varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to examine the sensitivity of California climate to doubled preindustrial CO 2 concentrations (560 ppm). That study found that under future climate conditions, the water resources of the state were dramatically affected. The results showed that snow

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Christopher E. Doughty, Scott R. Loarie, and Christopher B. Field

years ( Mayle et al. 2000 ). Figure 1. Change in MODIS white-sky albedo product for South America between 2001 and 2008. For further details, see Loarie et al. ( Loarie et al. 2011 ). The blue oval shows the SMI region. The black solid outline shows the region of interest. The black dashed line shows the average position of the ITCZ in January. The inferred changes in precipitation may be due to a shift in the southern boundary of the ITCZ in South America. It has been hypothesized that the

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Marc L. Fischer, David P. Billesbach, Joseph A. Berry, William J. Riley, and Margaret S. Torn

1. Introduction Land surface exchanges of energy, water, and CO 2 are the dominant factors affecting near-surface air temperatures, boundary layer CO 2 concentrations, boundary layer development and structure, cloud development, and precipitation. In the case of energy budgets and surface climate, previous work has shown that spatial complexity and temporal variations in land cover generate variations in climate at the regional scale ( Song et al. 1997 ; Doran et al. 1998 ; Cooley et al

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