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Q. Han, R. Welch, J. Chou, W. Rossow, and A. White

combined satellite (GOES) observed cloud optical thicknesses and ground-based microwave observations of cloud liquid water path(LWP) to retrieve cloud droplet radii in stratocumulus.These results, acquired for 1-18 July 1987 over SanNicolas Island, have smaller spatial (8 km) and temc 1995 American Meteorological Society4184JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOL. 52, No. 23poral (hourly) sampling intervals than those

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C. Kidd, D. Kniveton, and E. C. Barrett

1. Introduction The definition of statistical–empirical algorithms is not necessarily easy to determine. To envisage these algorithms as being a mere statistical relationship between two parameters (the passive microwave data and the ground truth data) would be too simplistic. Similarly, at the other extreme, rainfall retrievals using a physical model cannot solely rely upon radiative transfer theory. There is a full spectrum of algorithms that have evolved over several decades of research

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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

is underestimating reflectivity in ice-producing regions aloft, though likely not substantially, because the observed mean profiles decrease with altitude and do not exceed 30 dB. 4. Conclusions The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite provides a powerful tool for evaluating moist physics in numerical weather prediction models, particularly over water and complex terrain where observations are difficult to acquire. In this study, we use observations from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI

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William B. Rossow and Carl Sagan

phases. Because of the temperaturestructure of the atmosphere and the presence of sulfuricacid in the clouds, the water vapor abundance must begreater below thorn above the Venus clouds. Microwaveobservations constitute the only remote method forinvestigating the water content of the'deep atmosphereof Venus. Direct spacecraft observations of water haveso far been restricted to the middle atmosphere. Microwave observations also set an upper limit on the integrated abundance of liquid water and other

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K. Franklin Evans and Graeme L. Stephens

global scale. In addition, the nonspherical shapes of the ice particles hasmade interpretation of in situ and remotely sensed observations difficult. It is thus desirable to develop remote-sensing techniques that will aid the measurementof cirrus characteristics such as integrated ice mass,characteristic particle size, and particle shape, simultaneously with optical properties such as solar reflectance and infrared emissivity. Microwave remote sensing offers a number of potential advantages for

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Quanhua Liu and Fuzhong Weng

having an effective particle size of 20 μ m and 0.1-mm ice water path was located at 300 hPa, and a liquid water cloud at 850 hPa having an effective particle size of 10 μ m and 0.5 mm are chosen. The results computed from the three models agree very well (see Table 2 ). 4. Summary ADA can be used in satellite radiance assimilation and retrieval systems for infrared and microwave observations. The newly derived analytical formulas for the layer source function significantly improve the performance

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V. R. Venugopal

372 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES VOLU~e20Meteorological Conditions and Radio Astronomy Observations at X-Band V. R. V~.Nvco~,nr. National Radio Astronomy Observatory~, C-reot Bank, W. Vs. (Masauscript received 22 June 1963) ABSTRACT This paper describes the results of studies on the effects of the atmosphere on radio astronomy

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James B. Gilmore

. The influence of measurement uncertainty on natural variability will be examined here for the P – w relationship. It is known that the satellite retrievals of instantaneous oceanic rain rate and column water vapor from TMI used to build the P – w relationship in Peters and Neelin (2006 , 2009) do contain uncertainty ( Wentz 1997 ; Wentz and Spencer 1998 ). For microwave observations, this is because many sources aggregate into a combined brightness temperature measurement, which then have

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Roy W. Spencer, Frank J. LaFontaine, Thomas DeFelice, and Frank J. Wentz

that high precipitation efficiency causes a cool and dry equilibrium climate, while low precipitation efficiency results in a warm and moist climate. They concluded that GCMs must, at least implicitly, include the microphysical processes that control precipitation efficiency in order to address climate change issues, such as global warming. We will explore in a very preliminary way the possibility that passive microwave observations of liquid and ice abundances might be utilized to study this

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VOL. 51,NO. 20 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 15 OCTOBER I994EDITORIAL This special issue of the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (JAS) contains 21papers that present observations and scientific results from NASA's Upper AtmosphereResearch Satellite (UARS). The UARS satellite is the largest single atmospheric sciencespace mission ever launched and contains 10 instruments measuring constituents,winds, temperature

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