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Angela M. Zalucha, R. Alan Plumb, and R. John Wilson

. Geophys. Res. , 109 , E01002 . doi:10.1029/2003JE002129 . Hinson , D. P. , R. J. Wilson , M. D. Smith , and B. J. Conrath , 2003 : Stationary planetary waves in the atmosphere of Mars during southern winter. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 5004 . doi:10.1029/2002JE001949 . Hinson , D. P. , M. Pätzold , S. Tellmann , B. Häusler , and G. L. Tyler , 2008 : The depth of the convective boundary layer on Mars. Icarus , 198 , 57 – 66 . doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.07.003 . James

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A. Hannachi

, one can only look at the pattern dependence of planetary wave dynamics. Now, a main feature of atmospheric dynamics is that preferred low-frequency circulation structures exist in the atmosphere irrespective of whether nonlinearity is or is not significant ( Simmons et al. 1983 ; Newman et al. 2003 ). For example, Newman et al. (2003) obtain, using a linear model, preferred large-scale flow patterns that look like observed ones. Persistent low-frequency patterns, which differ significantly from

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Morgan E O’Neill, Kerry A. Emanuel, and Glenn R. Flierl

more quickly than they would in a real, nearly inviscid atmosphere, but slowly enough to observe the nonlinear interaction with the planetary vorticity gradient. When a single equivalent-barotropic cyclone is initially forced and then allowed to evolve, it induces a Rossby wave by wrapping high-PV fluid from the pole to its west and low-PV fluid from more equatorward regions to its east. For sufficiently strong cyclones, this happens quickly and nonlinearly, and creates β gyres ( Chan and

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Rodrigo Caballero and Henrik Carlson

3492.1 . 10.1175/2010JAS3492.1 Liu , J. , and T. Schneider , 2011 : Convective generation of equatorial superrotation in planetary atmospheres . J. Atmos. Sci. , 68 , 2742 – 2756 , . 10.1175/JAS-D-10-05013.1 Lutsko , N. J. , 2018 : The response of an idealized atmosphere to localized tropical heating: Superrotation and the breakdown of linear theory . J. Atmos. Sci. , 75 , 3 – 20 , . 10.1175/JAS-D-17

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Max Popp, Hauke Schmidt, and Jochem Marotzke

. Gold , T. , 1964 : Outgassing process on the Moon and Venus. The Origin and Evolution of Atmospheres and Oceans, P. Brancazio and A. G. W. Cameron, Eds., Wiley and Sons, 249–256 . Goldblatt , C. , and A. J. Watson , 2012 : The runaway greenhouse: Implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres . Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London , A370 , 4197 – 4216 , doi: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0004 . Goldblatt , C. , T. D. Robinson , K. J. Zahnle , and D. Crisp

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Nicholas J. Lutsko and Max Popp

in radiative equilibrium Finally, if the stratosphere is in radiative equilibrium the surface temperature is given by (section c of the appendix ) [ Robinson and Catling (2012) provided a similar derivation to the one in the appendix as part of the development of a more general analytic model for the global-mean surface temperature of planetary atmospheres in radiative–convective equilibrium (see their section 2.6)]. The new dependence of on OLR, , and γ is shown in the right columns of

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C. Holstein-Rathlou, J. Merrison, J. J. Iversen, A. B. Jakobsen, R. Nicolajsen, P. Nørnberg, K. Rasmussen, A. Merlone, G. Lopardo, T. Hudson, D. Banfield, and G. Portyankina

-Grzebyk et al. 2012 ) aims to promote a metrological approach to the climate and meteorological observations supporting the traceability of measurements involved in climate change—for example, surface and upper-atmosphere measurements of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed, and direction. To achieve robustness and reliability of atmospheric measurements, improved calibration procedures and facilities for controlled laboratory observations are needed. In this manuscript a dedicated environmental

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Shuguang Wang, Edwin P. Gerber, and Lorenzo M. Polvani

1. Introduction Climate models predict that there will be a substantial warming of the earth’s atmosphere by the end of the twenty-first century, accompanied by significant changes in the general circulation of the troposphere and stratosphere, if anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are not abated. Coupled atmosphere–ocean climate models project that the tropospheric extratropical jets will shift poleward (e.g., Yin 2005 ; Miller et al. 2006 ), accompanied by an expansion of the

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Haile Xue, Jian Li, Tingting Qian, and Hongping Gu

northern Norway ( Grønås and Sandvik 1999 ). These downslope windstorms indicate that a strong interaction can occur between the local mountain and upper atmosphere over a wide spectrum of topography. The multiscale topographies on the Tibetan Plateau have a high impact on the regional and global weather and climate ( Shi et al. 2008 ; Boos and Kuang 2010 ; Shi et al. 2017 ; Zhao et al. 2018 ). The precipitation bias over orographic regions, especially over the Tibetan Plateau, is higher than in

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Chenghai Wang, Kai Yang, Yiling Li, Di Wu, and Yue Bo

1. Introduction As an external forcing, snow plays an important role in the global radiation balance ( Shukla and Mooley 1987 ; Sankar-Rao et al. 1996 ; Walland and Simmonds 1996 ) and atmosphere–land interaction ( Yeh et al. 1983 ; Vernekar et al. 1995 ). It also has strong effects on the energy budget, hydrologic processes, and atmospheric circulation anomalies, which are regarded as sensitive indicators of climate change ( Blanford 1884 ; Yeh et al. 1983 ; Bamzai and Shukla 1999

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