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I. Kolev, O. Parvanov, B. Kaprielov, E. Donev, and D. Ivanov

shore. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 35, 311–316. Kolev, I., 1995: Lidar investigation of the aerosol stratification in the planetary boundary layer (over urban area, mountain valley and coastal zone). Proc. Workshop on Optical Methods for Environmental Monitoring of the Atmosphere, Trieste, Italy, NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory, 55 pp. ——, O. Parvanov, and B. Kaprielov, 1988: Lidar determination of winds by aerosol inhomogeneities: Motion velocity in the planetary boundary layer. Appl

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Sherwood B. Idso and Blaine L. Blad

604 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY Vo,.uMsl0REFERENCESAngell, J. K., D. H. Pack and C. R. Dickson, 1958: A Lagrangian study of helical circulations in the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sd., 25, 707-717.Booker, D. R., and L. W. Cooper, 1965: Superpressure balloonsfor weather research. $. Appl. Meteor., 4, 122-129.Prandfl, L., 1952: Essentials of Fluid Dynamics. New York, Hafner Publ

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C. G. Justus and M. V. Paris

, compared to Dave's results. Planetary albedo estimated from the Coulson (1959)model Rayleigh atmosphere is shown as circles inFig. 7.Figures 8 and 9 show comparisons between thepresent model and results for the Dave Model Clatmosphere case for the spectral response functionappropriate for the visible channel on the GOESVisible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR)sensor. The Dave model results for these exampleswere computed, using the Dave data set, and kindlyprovided to us by Paul Davis of

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Laurence J. Rider and Manuel Armendariz

are subjectto error caused by self-induced lateral motion of theballoon (MacCready, 1965; McVehil et al., 1965; Murrow and Henry, 1965; Scoggins, 1965; Wright, 1966;Rogers and Camnitz, 1966; Armendariz and Rachele,1967). The self-induced lateral motion of the balloon iscaused by the aerodynamic forces encountered duringthe balloon's ascent through the atmosphere. Anothersource of error is the inertia of the balloon which limitsits ability to respond faithfully to sudden wind shifts.In an effort to

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Robert G. Ellingson and Ralph R. Ferrado

-545.Gruber, A., and J. S. Winston, 1978: Earth-atmosphere radiative heating based on NOAA Scanning radiometer measurements. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 59, 1570-1573.Haurwitz, F., and W. R. Kuhn, 1974: The distribution of tropo spheric planetary radiation in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Appl. Meteor., 13, 417-429.Jacobwitz, H., W. L. Smith, H. B. Howell, F. W. Nagle and J. R. Hickey, 1979: The first 18 months of planetary radiation budget measurements from the Nimbus 6 ERB experiment. J. Atmos

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Wayne L. Darnell, Shashi K. Gupta, and W. Frank Staylor

, 1979: The first 18 months of planetary radiation budget measurements from the Nimbus 6 ERB experiment. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 501-507.Kidwell, K. B., 1981: NOAA Polar Orbiter Data, (TIROS-N and NOAA-6) Users Guide. Environmental Data and Information Service, NOAA, 90 pp.McClatchey, R. A., R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz and J. S. Garin~ 1972: Oplieal properties of the atmosphere. AFCRL 724)497, 108 pp. [NTIS-AD753075].NASA, 1979: Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978: NASA CP 2100

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F. A. Gifford

50179, 56 pp.Davies, R. W., 1959: Large-scale diffusion from an oil fire. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 6, Academic Press, 413-414.Edinger, J. G., 1952: A technique for measuring the detailed structure of atmospheric flow. Geophys. Res. Pap. No. 19, AFGRD, Cambridge, Mass.Gifford, F., 1957: Relative atmospheric diffusion of smoke puffs. J. Meteor., 14, 410.Golitsyn, G. S., 1973: Introduction to the Dynamics of Planetary Atmospheres. Hydrometeor. Press, Leningrad, 103 pp. [Trans lated as

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R. J. Charlson and M. J. Pilat

changes depends now uponwhat effect absorption in the aerosol layer has on theatmospheric temperature lapse rate, and how theaerosol affects infrared radiation to space. Rasool and Schneider (1971) have calculated theeffect of aerosols on scattering and absorbing visibleand infrared radiation. They conclude that the effectof aerosols in the lower atmosphere in reducing theabsorption of incoming solar radiation for the combinedsurface-aerosol system far exceeds any reduction inoutgoing infrared flux

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G. Dedieu, P. Y. Deschamps, and Y. H. Kerr

locations and seasons may require an adjustment of thesevalues, but this is not critical for estimating Eo sincemost of its variability comes from the presence ofclouds. Secondly, we consider a Cloudy scattering atmosphere with no absorption and molecular scattering,and we assume is0tropy of the radiance reflected bythe cloud layer and the surface. Planetary and sphericalalbedos of the cloud layer are then equal, as are thecloud top and cloud base albedos. The planetary albedoA viewed by the

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T. Mikkelsen and I. Troen

. Reidel, 248 pp.Fiedler, F., 1971: The variance spectrum of the horizontal wind velocity at 50 m above the ground. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 44, 187-200.Gifford, F. A., 1968: An outline of theories of diffusion in the lower layers of the atmosphere. Meteorology and Atomic Energy, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 65-116. , 1977: Tropospheric relative diffusion observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, 3 ! 1- 313.--, 1980: Smoke as a quantitative atmospheric diffusion tr~tcer. Atmos. E, nviron., 14, 1119

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