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F. M. Monaldo and R. S. Kasevich

2'72 IOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 11Daylight Imagery of Ocean Surface Waves for Wave Spectra - F. M. MONALDOThe Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20810 R. S. KASEVlCHRaytheon Company, Wayland, MA 01778(Manuscript received 8 February 1980, in final form 20 October 1980) ABSTRACT Both surface-reflected daylight and upwclling

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Andrey Pleskachevsky, Mikhail Dobrynin, Alexander V. Babanin, Heinz Günther, and Emil Stanev

not present), and the second series of tests is based on satellite observations in the ocean. Conclusions are summarized and discussed in section 5 . a. Background Numerical simulation of different processes in the ocean, such as transport of different ingredients, chemical and biological exchange, morphodynamics, suspended matter transport, etc., is based on knowledge of wave climate and circulation current dynamics. Developments in recent years allow for application of such modern

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Zhiling Liao, Shaowu Li, Ye Liu, and Qingping Zou

1. Introduction Infragravity (IG) waves are ocean surface waves of low frequencies, typically between 0.004 and 0.04 Hz, that distinct from the wind waves or swells of frequencies between 0.04 and 1 Hz ( Bertin et al. 2018 ). IG wave plays an important role in many coastal processes, such as resonance in harbors ( Miles 1974 ; Bowers 1977 ; Okihiro et al. 1993 ; Maa et al. 2010 ; Thotagamuwage and Pattiaratchi 2014a ; Gao et al. 2019 ; Gao et al. 2020 ), morphological evolution ( Roelvink

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Daniel Bourgault, David C. Janes, and Peter S. Galbraith

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We thank Kevin Lamb for sharing his code and fruitful discussions as well as James Caveen for code development. Thanks also to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. REFERENCES Bélanger , C. , 2003 : Observation and modelling of a renewal event in the Saguenay Fjord. Ph.D. thesis, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 235 pp . Boegman , L. , G. N. Ivey , and J. Imberger , 2005a : The degeneration of internal waves in lakes with sloping topography

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Robert H. Weisberg and Thomas J. Weingartner

NOVEMBER 1988 ROBERT H. WEISBERG AND THOMAS J. WEINGARTNER 1641Instability Waves in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean ROBERT H. WEISBERG AND THOMAS J. WEINGARTNERDepartment of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, Florida(Manuscript received 28 December 1987, in final form 17 May 1988) ABSTRACT Evidence is presented for the generation of planetary waves by barotropic

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Tomomichi Ogata, Motoki Nagura, and Yukio Masumoto

mechanism responsible for generation of the subsurface upward motion in the equatorial IO, particularly focusing on impacts of intraseasonal equatorial waves onto the mean condition. Previous studies indicate various intraseasonal oceanic variability to occur in the equatorial IO with significant amplitude, including ocean responses to atmospheric intraseasonal disturbances such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (e.g., Han et al. 2001 ), meridional current variability associated with the mixed Rossby

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Sophia E. Brumer, Christopher J. Zappa, Ian M. Brooks, Hitoshi Tamura, Scott M. Brown, Byron W. Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

1. Introduction Whitecaps are the surface signature of air-entraining breaking waves consisting of subsurface bubble clouds and surface foam patches. They have been studied extensively since the late 1960s because of the role of bubbles in the air–sea exchange of gases, and the production of sea spray aerosols. They form under wind speeds as low as 3 m s −1 ( Hanson and Phillips 1999 ; Monahan and O’Muircheartaigh 1986 ) and have been estimated to cover, on average, 1%–4% of the global oceans

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Riccardo Farneti

approaches have been used and different results, sometimes in disagreement, have been found. Nevertheless, there are a few key findings that can be pointed out. There is some evidence that the ocean can interact through feedback mechanisms (e.g., Latif and Barnett 1994 , 1996 ; Barsugli and Battisti 1998 ; Pierce et al. 2001 ; Hogg et al. 2006 ; Kravtsov et al. 2006 ), and it has also been suggested that oceanic Rossby waves play a major role in the coupling physics (e.g., Jin 1997 ; GM99

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Juan M. Restrepo

Komen et al. (1984) ]. A dynamic of whitecapping that has an obvious cause and effect is the dissipation it imparts on the waves and currents. The effective dissipation sometimes changes dramatically when a sudden change in wind strength and/or wind direction occurs. Whitecapping has no complete theory, and inclusion of its effects in ocean dynamics models is accomplished via parameterizations, some of which can be very sophisticated [ WAMDI Group (1988) ; Alves and Banner (2003) ; Komen et al

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Lars Czeschel and Carsten Eden

1. Introduction Breaking of internal waves is a main source of energy for turbulence in the ocean interior. Sources of internal waves include interaction of tidal or balanced flow with bottom topography, loss of balance and wind stress, in particular storms, acting on the surface. Wind stress generated internal waves are often associated with frequencies near the inertial frequency. A prominent mechanism is the so-called “inertial pumping”: temporal fluctuations in the wind stress excite

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