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Tomomichi Ogata, Motoki Nagura, and Yukio Masumoto

mechanism responsible for generation of the subsurface upward motion in the equatorial IO, particularly focusing on impacts of intraseasonal equatorial waves onto the mean condition. Previous studies indicate various intraseasonal oceanic variability to occur in the equatorial IO with significant amplitude, including ocean responses to atmospheric intraseasonal disturbances such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (e.g., Han et al. 2001 ), meridional current variability associated with the mixed Rossby

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Sophia E. Brumer, Christopher J. Zappa, Ian M. Brooks, Hitoshi Tamura, Scott M. Brown, Byron W. Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

1. Introduction Whitecaps are the surface signature of air-entraining breaking waves consisting of subsurface bubble clouds and surface foam patches. They have been studied extensively since the late 1960s because of the role of bubbles in the air–sea exchange of gases, and the production of sea spray aerosols. They form under wind speeds as low as 3 m s −1 ( Hanson and Phillips 1999 ; Monahan and O’Muircheartaigh 1986 ) and have been estimated to cover, on average, 1%–4% of the global oceans

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P. B. Smit, T. T. Janssen, and T. H. C. Herbers

-coordinate theory would perform well or better than empirical profiles specifically derived for that purpose. However, the s -coordinate theory presented here is a consistent second-order approximation, and for that reason should be preferred over more empirical methods to estimate the near-surface wave kinematics to that order of approximation. Mean velocities and mass flux Although the material transport due to the presence of ocean waves (or Stokes drift) is still not a fully resolved topic (e

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F. M. Monaldo and R. S. Kasevich

2'72 IOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 11Daylight Imagery of Ocean Surface Waves for Wave Spectra - F. M. MONALDOThe Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20810 R. S. KASEVlCHRaytheon Company, Wayland, MA 01778(Manuscript received 8 February 1980, in final form 20 October 1980) ABSTRACT Both surface-reflected daylight and upwclling

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Lars Czeschel and Carsten Eden

1. Introduction Breaking of internal waves is a main source of energy for turbulence in the ocean interior. Sources of internal waves include interaction of tidal or balanced flow with bottom topography, loss of balance and wind stress, in particular storms, acting on the surface. Wind stress generated internal waves are often associated with frequencies near the inertial frequency. A prominent mechanism is the so-called “inertial pumping”: temporal fluctuations in the wind stress excite

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Yalin Fan, Isaac Ginis, and Tetsu Hara

the ocean response to TCs, the momentum flux into currents τ c is the most critical parameter. Research and operational coupled atmosphere–ocean models usually assume that τ c is identical to the momentum flux from air (wind stress) τ air ; that is, no net momentum is gained (or lost) by surface waves. This assumption, however, is invalid when the surface wave field is growing or decaying. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface gravity waves on the momentum

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Yair De Leon and Nathan Paldor

various waves can only be determined when boundary conditions are imposed on the general solutions of the (ordinary) differential equations. The imposed boundary conditions are either regularity (or vanishing) of the meridional velocity component at infinity, or its vanishing at two walls that are assumed to exist at some given latitudes. While the infinite domain is hard to justify on the β plane [where only first terms of f  ( y ) are retained], the assumption that two walls exist in the ocean is

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Jesse M. Cusack, Alberto C. Naveira Garabato, David A. Smeed, and James B. Girton

1. Introduction Lee waves can be generally defined as internal gravity waves generated by the interaction of a quasi-steady stratified flow with topography. Observations of such phenomena in the ocean are rare, with notable examples including high-frequency, tidally forced waves in the lee of ridges (e.g., Pinkel et al. 2012 ; Alford et al. 2014 ). Propagating waves must have a frequency between the local inertial frequency f and buoyancy frequency N , which precludes their generation in

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Antoine Hochet, Thierry Huck, and Alain Colin de Verdière

1. Introduction During the last 20 yr, the measurements of the ocean surface properties by satellite instruments have allowed us to significantly increase our knowledge of ocean dynamics. Chelton and Schlax (1996) were among the first to show that large-scale anomalies, propagating to the west, were observable in the altimetry. Since then, a large number of authors have described these anomalies, generally depicted as Rossby waves, using various techniques such as a Hovmöller diagram

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Jaclyn N. Brown, J. Stuart Godfrey, and Susan E. Wijffels

1. Introduction The ocean currents in the equatorial Pacific are significantly nonlinear. Contributing to this nonlinearity are eddies, such as tropical instability waves (TIWs) (e.g., Legeckis 1997 ; McCreary and Yu 1992 ; Baturin and Niiler 1997 ). TIWs appear as oscillations of the currents, sea level, and sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific. These disturbances are mixed barotropic/baroclinic instabilities feeding on the kinetic and potential energy of the mean

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