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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

. 2006 ), radars (e.g., Stober et al. 2013 ), airglow imagers (e.g., Suzuki et al. 2010 ), noctilucent cloud images (e.g., Pautet et al. 2011 ), satellite measurements (e.g., Alexander et al. 2008 ), radiosonde soundings (e.g., Dörnbrack et al. 1999 ; Zhang and Yi 2005 ), and rocket soundings (e.g., Rapp et al. 2004 ). However, these instruments are limited to particular altitude ranges and are only sensitive to a distinct part of the gravity wave spectrum ( Gardner and Taylor 1998 ; Preusse

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Tyler Mixa, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Markus Rapp

from the Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM), which remained stationary for several hours ( Pautet et al. 2016 ). Simultaneous lidar measurements of sodium mixing ratios in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) indicate peak gravity wave amplitudes of ≈±10 K at z ≈ 83 km and λ x ≈ 40 km. Later flight legs show strong indications of gravity wave breaking, with apparent vortex ring formation and momentum fluxes estimated over 320 m 2 s −2 ( Pautet et al. 2016 ). Eckermann et al

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