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Jianjun Liu, Zhanqing Li, and Maureen Cribb

apparent effects of cloud, humidity, and dynamics on aerosol optical thickness near cloud edges . J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , D00K32 , doi: 10.1029/2009JD013547 . Jones , T. A. , S. A. Christopher , and J. Quaas , 2009 : A six year satellite-based assessment of the regional variations in aerosol indirect effects . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 9 , 4091 – 4114 , doi: 10.5194/acp-9-4091-2009 . Kaufman , Y. J. , I. K. Lorraine , A. Remer , D. Rosenfeld , and Y. Rudich , 2005 : The effect

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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

the past decade . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 5 , 1667 – 1682 , doi: 10.5194/amt-5-1667-2012 . Chin , M. , R. B. Rood , S.-J. Lin , J.-F. Muller , and A. M. Thompson , 2000 : Atmospheric sulfur cycle simulated in the global model GOCART: Model description and global properties . J. Geophys. Res. , 105 , 24 671 – 24 687 , doi: 10.1029/2000JD900384 . Chin , M. , and Coauthors , 2002 : Tropospheric aerosol optical thickness from the GOCART model and comparisons with satellite and

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

is nearly saturated, the negative effect induced by aerosols was small. The invigoration effect can cause cloud tops to reach greater heights while keeping their albedo fixed at the nearly saturated value for thick clouds. The colder cloud tops emit less thermal radiation to space, so they induce a positive RF. However, for optically thinner clouds, both shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) forcing can be strong. The AIV can produce warming or cooling based on the particular combination of macro- and

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

III: Control simulation of a hailstorm . J. Atmos. Sci. , 63 , 3114 – 3136 , doi: 10.1175/JAS3816.1 . Min , M. , and Z. Zhang , 2014 : On the influence of cloud fraction diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability on all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing . J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 142 , 25 – 36 , doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.03.014 . Min , Q.-L. , R. Li , B. Lin , E. Joseph , S. Wang , Y. Hu , V. Morris , and F. Chang , 2009

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

). Progress has also been made to elucidate the aerosol–cloud–radiation feedback on regional and global scales ( Tie et al. 2003 ). Several studies have revealed that a reduced cloud cover, lowered cloud optical thickness, or a short cloud lifetime occurs for low- and midlevel clouds with absorbing aerosols ( Johnson et al. 2004 ; Zhang et al. 2008 ; Allen and Sherwood 2010 ; Sakaeda et al. 2011 ; Li et al. 2013 ). Fan et al. (2008) have shown that ARE induces a decrease in relative humidity

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

optical particle counter, where ice crystals are counted based on their larger sizes (>4- μ m geometric diameter) than cloud droplets and liquid aerosols that are evaporated in a sub-water-saturated lower section of the chamber prior to the optical detector. Number concentrations of INPs were monitored daily in both experiments and are reported in McCluskey et al. (2017) . In this study, we report results regarding the identity of ice crystal residuals (ICRs) using the same basic approach of Prenni

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Nicholas R. Nalli, William L. Smith, and Quanhua Liu

contamination on the aerosol optical thickness and its long-term trend derived from operational AVHRR satellite observations . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 118 , 2849 – 2857 , doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50278 . 1 As in our previous papers, we use the term “concave up” to describe an increasing positive bias in calc − obs with symmetric from . 2 The CRTM was developed at the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) in the United States in support of satellite radiance assimilation for numerical

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Wojciech W. Grabowski and Hugh Morrison

1. Introduction The impact of atmospheric aerosols on the microphysics and dynamics of deep convection continues to be a subject of considerable interest in modeling and observations. A recent review by Tao et al. (2012) includes around 300 relevant references, while chapter 7, “Clouds and Aerosols,” of the Working Group 1 contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report ( IPCC 2013 ; see http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/ ) provides a broader context for the cloud–aerosol interactions and their

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