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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

(as inferred from clouds below 2 km on the left-hand side in Fig. 3a ) appears to decay at the SAL boundary (∼12°N near 1455 UTC), suggesting that some aspect of the dry, dusty SAL air mass suppresses vertical transport. Aerosol optical thickness values obtained by integrating LASE-derived, aerosol extinction profiles over the altitude of the SAL (1.2 to 7 km; black line plot in Fig. 7a ) ranged from 0.05 to 0.4. A thin cloud layer is seen at 1540 UTC at 7-km altitude. Attenuation of the lidar

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Oreste Reale, William K. Lau, Kyu-Myong Kim, and Eugenia Brin

initially precedes the core of the wave W1 of about 10°. This dipole is gradually advected into the circulation of the wave and may have contributed to the inhibition of further development by increasing static stability. No such dipole is found for the Saharan air that intruded in Helene’s precursor. MODIS aerosol optical thickness shows that the SAL outbreak associated with the nondeveloping case contained a higher amount of dust. The lower-tropospheric cooling associated with the strong Saharan air

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R. A. Hansell, S. C. Tsay, Q. Ji, N. C. Hsu, M. J. Jeong, S. H. Wang, J. S. Reid, K. N. Liou, and S. C. Ou

conservative scatterers (i.e., no absorption) these effects critically depend on the solar zenith angle (SZA); hence, instantaneous measurements of the SW effect have been commonly converted into a diurnal average ( Anderson et al. 2005 ). For example, based on an analysis of in situ studies, Anderson et al. 2005 estimated the diurnally averaged top-of-atmosphere (TOA) DRE SW for Saharan dust over ocean to lie in the range of −24 to −36 W m −2 per unit aerosol optical thickness (AOT), that is, W m −2

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