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Jake J. Gristey, J. Christine Chiu, Robert J. Gurney, Keith P. Shine, Stephan Havemann, Jean-Claude Thelen, and Peter G. Hill

the radiance difference to a flux difference. While CCCM provides information on seven common aerosol species, only four of them (large dust particles, small dust particles, sulfate, and sea salt) are used, since their optical properties have been included in the training phase of HT-FRTC. These four types account for over 85% of the total aerosol fraction in the study region and time period considered such that aerosol variability is expected to be reasonably well represented. Training of the HT

Open access
Norman G. Loeb, Hailan Wang, Fred G. Rose, Seiji Kato, William L. Smith Jr, and Sunny Sun-Mack

surface radiative fluxes is derived from clear-sky and partly cloudy CERES footprints following Rutan et al. (2009) . Aerosol data in the surface calculations are from the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH; Collins et al. 2001 ), which assimilates MODIS aerosol optical thickness. Temperature, humidity and ozone profiles are from the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5.4.1 (GEOS-5.4.1) reanalysis ( Rienecker et al. 2008 ). While the EBAF Ed4.0 TOA radiative fluxes are closely

Open access
Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Yun Hang, Alexander V. Matus, and Zhien Wang

phase) discrimination for each cloud layer ( Zhang et al. 2010 ). In addition, MODIS provides complementary measurements of cloud effective radius and integrated optical thickness that further constrain cloud radiative properties ( Platnick et al. 2003 ; Ackerman et al. 2008 ; Chan and Comiso 2011 ). Compared to ISCCP and other similar cloud type schemes, the CloudSat 2BCLD product not only provides information for cloud type characterization more faithfully but also helps fill gaps in

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Seiji Kato and Fred G. Rose

) . Computation of entropy production We compute shortwave and longwave upward and downward irradiances hourly at 35 levels in the atmosphere (plus cloud-top and cloud-base heights, depending on retrieved heights) for every equal-area grid with a radiative transfer model ( Fu and Liou 1993 ; Rose et al. 2006 , 2013 ). For shortwave irradiance computations, a gamma distribution is used to express the distribution of hourly cloud optical thickness in an equal-area grid separated by 4 different cloud types. We

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