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Elina Tragou, Chris Garrett, Richard Outerbridge, and Craig Gilman

et al. (1994) at the Department of Geoscience of the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee (henceforth referred to as UWM/COADS), and currently accepted bulk formulas. We find a total net surface heat input, significantly higher than the original estimate of BCG, rather than a loss. We suggest that possible explanations for this discrepancy include the role of regionally high aerosol concentration in attenuating the solar irradiance, and we explore this using optical thickness data from satellites

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Luc Lenain and W. Kendall Melville

wave height), moments of the breaker distribution Λ( c ), and wave breaking dissipation F were measured by a suite of electro-optical sensors that included the NASA ATM. Large aerosol particles ( d > 40 μ m) were found up to the top of the MABL. This is of importance as the role, generation, and transport mechanisms of this range of aerosols are poorly understood ( Veron 2015 ) but are known to contribute to sensible and latent heat fluxes and can also offer a means of transport for larger

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Gilbert N. Plass and George W. Kattawar

always used to specify a point below the oceansurface (taken as r=0). It should be noted that anocean with an optical thickness of r= 10 has differentactual depths for various models at a particular wavelength or for the same model at different wavelengths,since the total cross section depends on the turbidityand wavelength. The calculations were made for sixdifferent values of the albedo A of the ocean floor.The upward ffux near the ocean floor depends stronglyon the value chosen for A. However, the

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André Morel and David Antoine

1652JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHYVOLUME 24Heating Rate within the Upper Ocean in Relation to its Bio-Optical State ANDR~ MOREL AND DAVID ANTOINELaboratoire de Physique et Chimie Marines, Universit~ Pierre et Marie Curie et CNRS, VilleJ?anche sur Mer, France18 May 1993 and 8 December 1993ABSTRACTr Solar radiation absorption and local heating within the upper layers oftbe open ocean are strongly influencedby the abundance of phytoplankton as depicted by the chlorophyll

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Jack A. C. Kaiser

~> 0.3) compared to those on predominantly clear days (curves).first step to include atmospheric aerosols and dust.The model takes measured solar spectra at sealevel as a function of air mass, calculated spectrafor a pure Rayleigh sky, and cloud spectra determined from a two-flow model of radiative transferin a model cloud having a liquid water content of0.2 g m-3 and a thickness of 1.5 km. The direct solarradiation comes from a point source, but the skyand clouds are treated as

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J. Carter Ohlmann, David A. Siegel, and Curtis D. Mobley

agreement with surface irradiance measurements ( Siegel et al. 1999 ; Ricchiazzi et al. 1998 ). Clouds are quantified by introducing a cloud index, CI, defined as one minus the ratio of downwelling irradiance to downwelling clear-sky irradiance at the sea surface (e.g., Gautier et al. 1980 ; Siegel et al. 1999 ). A cloud index of 0.20 corresponds to a 20% reduction in the incident solar flux from the clear sky value due to clouds. To arrive at the cloud indices used here, the optical thickness of the

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Michael L. Banner, Christopher J. Zappa, and Johannes R. Gemmrich

spray generation ( de Leeuw et al. 2011 ; Mueller and Veron 2009b ), enhanced gas exchange ( Asher and Wanninkhof 1998a , b ; Keeling 1993 ; Merlivat and Mémery 1983 ; Woolf 1993 , 2005 ), satellite microwave remote sensing ( Anguelova and Webster 2006 ; Hwang 2012 ; Hwang et al. 2008 ; Reul and Chapron 2003 ), and near-surface and upper-ocean optical variability ( Dickey et al. 2011 , 2012 ), among others. There is also a pressing need to include accurate wave-breaking predictions in

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Luc Lenain, Nicholas M. Statom, and W. Kendall Melville

– 1092 , . 10.1175/JAS3386.1 Gordon , H. R. , and M. Wang , 1992 : Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1: The Rayleigh-scattering component . Appl. Opt. , 31 , 4247 – 4260 , . 10.1364/AO.31.004247 Gordon , H. R. , and M. Wang , 1994 : Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm . Appl. Opt

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Colm Sweeney, Anand Gnanadesikan, Stephen M. Griffies, Matthew J. Harrison, Anthony J. Rosati, and Bonita L. Samuels

different solar irradiance parameterizations and observed chlorophyll a concentrations. 2. Method a. The circulation model Both optical models were tested using the most recent version of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM4: Griffies et al. 2003 ), which solves the hydrostatic, z -coordinate primitive equations. The model resolution is 2° in the east–west direction. The north–south resolution varies from 2

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Sophia E. Brumer, Christopher J. Zappa, Ian M. Brooks, Hitoshi Tamura, Scott M. Brown, Byron W. Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, and Alejandro Cifuentes-Lorenzen

of breaking waves . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 38 , 1296 – 1312 , doi: 10.1175/2007JPO3762.1 . 10.1175/2007JPO3762.1 Goddijn-Murphy , L. , D. K. Woolf , and A. H. Callaghan , 2011 : Parameterizations and algorithms for oceanic whitecap coverage . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 41 , 742 – 756 , doi: 10.1175/2010JPO4533.1 . 10.1175/2010JPO4533.1 Gordon , H. R. , and M. Wang , 1994 : Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary

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