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Stephan F. J. De Wekker and Shane D. Mayor

lasers could be used to locate clouds and aerosols and study atmospheric dynamics. As laser and optical technology matured in the 1970s and 1980s, Doppler lidars were used to study flow over complex terrain ( Banta et al. 1990 , 1999 ; Blumen and Hart 1988 ). Doppler lidars enabled direct measurement of the radial wind velocity field and, because of the relatively long wavelength and sufficiently low energy density in the beam, featured eye safety. During this time, the development and application

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Susanne Drechsel, Georg J. Mayr, Michel Chong, Martin Weissmann, Andreas Dörnbrack, and Ronald Calhoun

μ m, where backscatter is from molecules and widely dispersed aerosol particles. Aerosols are ubiquitous, but their concentration decreases away from their main source (i.e., the surface). Thin clouds may also provide sufficient backscatter. The typical range is 10 km, often less in the vertical because of the paucity of aerosols above the boundary layer. Hydrometeors strongly attenuate the lidar signal because of the extinction of the laser beam. Range resolution is typically 30–300 m for lidar

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