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Nathan P. Gillett, Vivek K. Arora, Damon Matthews, and Myles R. Allen

fluxes gives the derived cumulative emissions: anthropogenic emissions that when specified in a free CO 2 simulation would have given the same evolution of atmospheric CO 2 . We focus mainly on the 1PCT simulations here because TCRE is a metric of the response to CO 2 only and it is conventionally defined using such simulations ( Matthews et al. 2009 ). We also examine the response in simulations in which the CO 2 concentration is instantaneously quadrupled and then held constant (4×CO 2 ) for 10

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Chris Jones, Eddy Robertson, Vivek Arora, Pierre Friedlingstein, Elena Shevliakova, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Tomohiro Hajima, Etsushi Kato, Michio Kawamiya, Spencer Liddicoat, Keith Lindsay, Christian H. Reick, Caroline Roelandt, Joachim Segschneider, and Jerry Tjiputra

1. Introduction The global carbon cycle has long been known to be a crucial component of future climate change, closely linking anthropogenic CO 2 emissions with future changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration and hence climate (e.g., Prentice et al. 2001 ). Including the carbon cycle as an interactive component in comprehensive climate models has become common, and the Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project (C 4 MIP; Friedlingstein et al. 2006 ) presented results of 11

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

. 2005 ; Friedlingstein et al. 2006 ; Denman et al. 2007 ; Booth and Jones 2011 ). The importance of the terrestrial component of the carbon cycle to future model projections is widely recognized, in large part because the terrestrial component is so greatly influenced by anthropogenic activities such as restoration from past disturbances and changes in land use or management ( Houghton 2007 ). The interannual and interdecadal variability in the growth rate of atmospheric CO 2 concentration is

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

-use changes on climate, several CMIP5 modeling groups performed additional LUCID–CMIP5 simulations without anthropogenic land-use changes from 2006 to 2100. The differences between simulations with and without land-use changes reveal climatic effects of LULCC on global and regional scales. In this paper, we examine the biogeophysical effects and changes in the land carbon storage due to LULCC, focusing on two RCP simulations driven by prescribed CO 2 concentrations. These simulations allow us to quantify

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Alan J. Hewitt, Ben B. B. Booth, Chris D. Jones, Eddy S. Robertson, Andy J. Wiltshire, Philip G. Sansom, David B. Stephenson, and Stan Yip

1. Introduction The global carbon cycle is a crucial component of future climate change, closely linking anthropogenic CO 2 emissions with future changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration and hence climate ( Denman et al. 2007 ; Ciais et al. 2013 ). Inclusion of the carbon cycle as an interactive component in comprehensive Earth system models (ESMs) has grown since early coupled studies ( Cox et al. 2000 ) and intercomparisons such as the Coupled Carbon Cycle–Climate Model Intercomparison

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G. J. Boer and V. K. Arora

1. Introduction The distribution of carbon in the atmosphere, land, and ocean is changing as a consequence of the anthropogenic emission of CO 2 . Biogeochemical processes in the carbon cycle are directly affected by an increase in atmospheric CO 2 , which alters the flux of carbon between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. An increase in atmospheric CO 2 also affects the energy budget, resulting in warmer temperatures and other changes in climate that, in turn, affect the carbon

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Spencer Liddicoat, Chris Jones, and Eddy Robertson

atmospheric CO 2 concentration scenario, the associated emissions can be diagnosed from the carbon balance of the model; the more CO 2 absorbed by the land and oceans, the greater the amount that can be emitted through anthropogenic activity while adhering to the concentration pathway. The total mass of CO 2 in the atmosphere C A is known, and so is its rate of change dC A / dt . The latter is related to the simulated carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and the land surface F AL and between the

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Pierre Friedlingstein, Malte Meinshausen, Vivek K. Arora, Chris D. Jones, Alessandro Anav, Spencer K. Liddicoat, and Reto Knutti

et al. 2001 ; Friedlingstein et al. 2006 ; Sitch et al. 2008 ). At the time of AR4, the Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project (C 4 MIP) highlighted the large uncertainty in future projections of the carbon cycle ( Friedlingstein et al. 2006 ). Starting from the same historical and twenty-first-century anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , 11 carbon cycle climate models (hereafter C 4 MIP models; model names listed in Table 1 ) simulated atmospheric CO 2 ranging between 700

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

1. Introduction The global ocean takes up more than a quarter of the total anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is released into the atmosphere, and the Southern Ocean is thought to be responsible for more than 40% of the global ocean’s uptake of anthropogenic CO 2 (e.g., Toggweiler and Samuels 1995 ; Orr et al. 2001 ; Sarmiento et al. 2004 ; Russell et al. 2006 ; Marinov et al. 2006 ; Mikaloff Fletcher et al. 2006 ). Southern Ocean net uptake of anthropogenic and natural CO 2 is

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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

1. Introduction It is estimated that, at present, the world’s oceans take up approximately 25% of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions ( Le Quéré et al. 2013 ), thereby reducing the atmospheric CO 2 burden. At the same time, climate change modifies ocean circulation and the physical and chemical properties of seawater, which in turn can alter CO 2 uptake. These CO 2 and climate-driven effects are referred to as carbon–concentration and carbon–climate feedback ( Boer and Arora 2009 ; Gregory et al

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